Weed Seed: Leucanthemum vulgare (Ox-eye daisy)

Family

Asteraceae

Synonym

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum

Common Name

Ox-eye daisy

Regulation

Secondary Noxious, Class 3 and Noxious, Class 5 in the Canadian Weed Seeds Order, 2016 under the Seeds Act.

Distribution

Canadian: Occurs in all Canadian provinces and territories (Brouillet et al. 2016Footnote 1).

Worldwide: Native to Europe and western temperate Asia (USDA-ARS 2016Footnote 2). Naturalized in east and southern Africa, eastern temperate and southern tropical Asia, Australia, New Zealand, North America and parts of South America (USDA-ARS 2016Footnote 2).

Duration of life cycle

Perennial

Seed or fruit type

Achene

Identification features

Size

  • Achene length: 2.0 - 3.0 mm
  • Achene width: 0.8 - 1.0 mm

Shape

  • Achene elongate, ribbed, tapered at base

Surface Texture

  • Achene has 10 prominent ribs with smooth interspaces

Colour

  • Achene dark brown with light brown ribs

Other Features

  • A short and blunt floral style remnant is on top of the achene
  • The rib interspaces frequently have short, white streaks

Habitat and Crop Association

Cultivated land (rare), hay fields, pastures, gardens, lawns, rangeland, native grasslands, forest openings, abandoned croplands, roadways, railway embankments and disturbed areas (Clements et al. 2004Footnote 3, Darbyshire 2003Footnote 4).

General Information

Ox-eye daisy was introduced to North America as an ornamental and seed contaminant in the late 1700s. By 1800, it was well established in many areas of North America (Clements et al. 2004Footnote 3).

Reproduction occurs mainly through seeds but plants can also sprout from rhizomes (Clements et al. 2004Footnote 3). A single plant may produce several thousand seeds per season that can remain viable in the soil for 5 to 40 years (Clements et al. 2004Footnote 3).

Similar species

Shasta daisy (Leucanthemum x superbum)

  • Shasta daisy achenes have a similar shape, dark colour with streaks between the ribs and top peg as ox-eye daisy.
  • Shasta daisy (length: 3.0 - 5.0 mm; width 1.0 - 1.5 mm) is generally larger than ox-eye daisy. The ribs tend to be darker than ox-eye daisy.

Photos

Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) achenes
Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) achene
Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) achene, side view
Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) top of the achene
Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) achene

Similar species

Similar species: Shasta daisy (Leucanthemum x superbum) achene
Similar species: Shasta daisy (Leucanthemum x superbum) achenes
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