Red-necked longhorn beetle – Aromia bungii

Background

The red-necked longhorn beetle (Aromia bungii) is a wood boring beetle native to eastern Asia that breeds in flowering trees, various species of Prunus and other hardwood trees. It can affect yield of fruit trees and may seriously weaken or even kill host trees.Footnote 1 It is a pest of potential concern that is not known to occur in Canada and it is not on the regulated pest list. Early detection could help manage this pest were it to occur in Canada. This large, black beetle can be distinguished from all other native and naturalized beetles in Canada by its red thorax. If you believe you have found suspect specimens, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

Plant Pest Credit Card- Red-necked longhorn beetle PDF (1.2 mb)

Identification

Adult beetles are 22-38 mm in length and completely glossy black in colour except for the red thorax, which bears a stout, spine-like process on each side. Like other longhorned beetles, the antennae are as long as (females) or longer (males) than the body.Footnote 1

Hosts

Hosts include Peach (Prunus persica), apricot (P. armeniaca), American plum (P. americana), cherry (P. avium), plum (P. domestica), and Japanese apricot (P. mume).Footnote 1 Footnote 2 Footnote 3 Footnote 4 There are a number of additional hosts mentioned in the scientific literature but with little information on their status as hosts: white poplar (Populus alba), Chinese white poplar (P. tomentosa), persimmons (Diospyros ), Chinese wingnut (Pterocarya stenoptera), Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima), oaks (Quercus), walnut (Juglans regia),neem (Azadirachta indica), olive (Olea europaea), weavers bamboo (Bambusa textilis), pomegranate (Pumila granatum).Footnote 1 Footnote 2 Footnote 3 Footnote 4 Footnote 5 Footnote 6 Footnote 7 As many publications on this insect are written in Chinese, there may be additional hosts of Aromia bungii that are not reported in the English literature.

Location of Infestation Within Tree

Early instar larvae mine galleries between the bark and sapwood within the trunk; late instar larvae develop within the heartwood.Footnote 1 Footnote 4 Larvae can also mine galleries in larger branches.Footnote 1

Host Condition

The preferred health status of host trees is not clearly understood. However, other species in the Aromia genus prefer to attack young healthy trees as well as those that are stressed.Footnote 2

Distribution

This beetle is known to occur in China, North and South Korea, Mongolia, VietnamFootnote 2, introduced into JapanFootnote 3, introduced and under eradication in Germany (Kolbermoor) and Italy (Campania region).Footnote 2 Footnote 3

Signs and Symptoms

Eggs are laid in bark cracks. Larval galleries are 17-22 cm long under the bark of the trunk or along branches.Footnote 4 Exit holes are 12 mm in diameter.Footnote 1 Large coarse fibrous debris (frass) may be pushed out and can occur around the base of the tree. In Asia, Aromia bungii can affect yield in fruit trees and may seriously weaken or even kill host trees.Footnote 1

Female A. bungii

A. Female A. bungii. Note antennae extend to tip of abdomen.

Male A. bungii

B. Male A. bungii. Note antennae 1.5 x body length.

Expelled A. bungii frass from Prunus in Italy

C. Expelled A. bungii frass from Prunus in Italy.

Larval galleries within Prunus (Italy)

D. Larval galleries within Prunus (Italy).

Aromia bungii larva feeding beneath the bark of a Prunus

E. Aromia bungii larva feeding beneath the bark of a Prunus.

Aromia bungii infested plum tree (Prunus domestica) in Italy

F. Aromia bungii infested plum tree (Prunus domestica) in Italy.

Female A. bungii

G. Female A. bungii.

Photo Credits

  1. Pierre Haller. http://www.biolib.cz/en/imagegalleryuser/id220287/?uid=7039
  2. Pierre Haller. http://www.biolib.cz/en/imagegalleryuser/id220286/?uid=7039
  3. Daniela Benchi. Plant Health Service of Campania Region, Napoli (Italy) http://photos.eppo.org/index.php/image/6828-arombu-01/images/623-aromia-bungii-arombu-
  4. Raffaele Griffo. Plant Health Service of Campania Region, Napoli (Italy) http://photos.eppo.org/index.php/image/6834-arombu-08/images/623-aromia-bungii-arombu-
  5. Bruno Espinosa. Dipartimento di Entomologia e Zoologia agraria, Facolta di Agraria, Portici, Napoli (Italy) http://www.sito.regione.campania.it/AGRICOLTURA/difesa/aromia.html
  6. Daniela Benchi. Plant Health Service of Campania Region, Napoli (Italy) http://photos.eppo.org/index.php/image/6827-arombu-02/images/623-aromia-bungii-arombu-
  7. Raffaele Griffo. Plant Health Service of Campania Region, Napoli (Italy) http://photos.eppo.org/index.php/image/6826-arombu-05/images/623-aromia-bungii-arombu-
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