RMD-11-04: Record of Decision to Permit the Importation of Panax spp. (ginseng) Seed from Korea
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Date Issued: 2011-06-01
As described by the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) includes three stages: initiation, pest risk assessment and pest risk management. Initiating the PRA process involves identifying pests and pathways of concern and defining the PRA area. Pest risk assessment provides the scientific basis for the overall management of risk. Pest risk management is the process of identifying and evaluating potential mitigation measures which may be applied to reduce the identified pest risk to acceptable levels and selecting appropriate measures.
This Risk Management Document (RMD) includes a summary of the findings of a pest risk assessment and records the pest risk management process for the identified issue. It is consistent with the principles, terminology and guidelines provided in the IPPC standards for pest risk analysis.
Table of Contents
- 1.0 Summary
- 2.0 Purpose
- 3.0 Scope
- 4.0 Definitions
- 5.0 Background
- 6.0 Pest Risk Assessment Summary
- 7.0 Risk Management Considerations
- 8.0 Risk Management Decision
- 9.0 References
- 10.0 Endorsement
The importation of ginseng seed is regulated under Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) regulatory directive D-94-25: Plant protection import requirements for ginseng (Panax spp.). Appendix 1 of this directive states that ginseng seed is permitted from all origins under specific phytosanitary requirements. Due to concerns expressed by Canadian ginseng producers, the CFIA conducted an update to a Pest Risk Assessment to determine the phytosanitary risks associated with ginseng seed from Korea.
The Pest Risk Assessment indicates that the phytosanitary requirements outlined in D-94-25 are sufficient to mitigate any phytosanitary risks associated with ginseng seed from Korea.
To provide scientific justification for the decision to permit the importation of ginseng seeds from Korea.
This pest risk management decision pertains to Canada's plant and plant product import policy that relates to the importation of ginseng seeds from Korea.
Information pertaining to current import requirements for specific plants or plant products may be obtained from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) Automated Import Reference System (AIRS).
Definitions for terms used in this document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.
In 2006 the CFIA made a decision not to permit the importation of ginseng seed from Korea. At that time there were significant phytosanitary concerns associated with this material and, due to a lack of availability of scientific information, a precautionary decision was made to prohibit the importation of ginseng seed from Korea.
This decision was revisited in 2010 when a Canadian importer requested that a Pest Risk Assessment be conducted to re-evaluate the phytosanitary risk associated with this material. The CFIA is aware that there is a significant ginseng production industry in the province of Ontario and has considered the pests of concern identified by industry throughout the risk analysis process.
6.0 Pest Risk Assessment Summary
The original purpose of Pest Risk Assessment No. 2010-52: Panax: Ginseng seed from China, Korea and South-East Asia was to update the evaluation of the plant health risk associated with the importation of ginseng seed from China and South-East Asia. The Plant Health Risk Assessment Unit of the Science Branch, CFIA updated the first version of the 2006 Pest Risk Assessment in November 2008. This third update includes pathogens of ginseng seed reported from Korea as this country was not considered by the plant pathologist to be part of South-East Asia. The botany portion of this risk assessment was not updated.
This Pest Risk Assessment will help the CFIA determine the regulatory status of ginseng seed from China, South-East Asia and Korea. This assessment is based on a review of available published literature, as well as historical pest interception records from Canada and other countries. Specific information on ginseng pests in the countries of concern has not been provided by the phytosanitary authorities of the exporting countries. The assessment considers the pest status of ginseng as a potential pest / weed or invasive plant, and any pests and diseases associated with ginseng seed from China, South-East Asia, and Korea including bacteria, phytoplasmas, fungi, viruses, nematodes, insects, mites, molluscs and weeds.
The CFIA received an inquiry from the Canadian ginseng industry to determine if the following pests were of phytosanitary concern in association with ginseng seed from Korea
Ascochyta panacis: This organism is not known to be associated with ginseng seed.
Bushy stunt rod-shaped virus: This virus is not of phytosanitary significance.
Ginseng yellow stunt virus: This virus is not of phytosanitary significance.
Phoma panacicola: This organism has not been reported in association with ginseng from Korea since 1922 therefore it is of no phytosanitary significance in relation to ginseng seed from Korea.
Phyllosticta panax: There is very little information available about this organism. There is no recent information to suggest that this organism is of phytosanitary significance.
The Pest Risk Assessment indicates that ginseng itself is not an invasive plant of quarantine concern to Canada. While the pests listed below can be found in association with ginseng seed, there are adequate phytosanitary requirements in place to mitigate the risk of these pests being transmitted via ginseng seeds from all origins.
Potential quarantine pests: No new organisms of clear quarantine significance were found.
7.0 Risk Management Considerations
7.1 Standards of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)
Canada is signatory to the IPPC, which has been designated as the standard-setting body of the World Trade Organization. IPPC International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) No. 1, Phytosanitary principles for the protection of plants and the application of phytosanitary measures in international trade (2006) requires that contracting parties "apply phytosanitary measures without discrimination between contracting parties if contracting parties can demonstrate that they have the same phytosanitary status and apply identical or equivalent phytosanitary measures."
The CFIA permits the importation of ginseng seeds from all countries other than Korea. Through the pest risk analysis, the CFIA has determined that ginseng seed from Korea has the same phytosanitary status as ginseng seed from all other countries
7.2 Current regulation by the CFIA
The importation of ginseng seed from Korea is currently prohibited however, as outlined in appendix 1 of CFIA regulatory directive D-94-25: Plant protection import requirements for ginseng (Panax spp.), the importation of ginseng seed is permitted from all countries other than the continental United States under the following conditions:
- A Permit to Import and a Phytosanitary Certificate is required.
- The Phytosanitary Certificate must include additional declarations attesting to freedom from Colletotrichum panacicola and soil pests.
8.0 Risk Management Decision
Based on the results of CFIA Pest Risk Assessment No. 2010-52, and in accordance with international obligations, the CFIA has made the decision to permit the importation of ginseng seed from Korea under the conditions listed in appendix 1 of CFIA regulatory directive D-94-25.
ISPM No. 1, Phytosanitary principles for the protection of plants and the application of phytosanitary measures in international trade (2006)
Pest Risk Assessment No. 2010-52: Panax: Ginseng seed from China, Korea and South-East Asia
Chief Plant Health Officer
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