RMD-11-03: Revision of the geographic boundaries of the regulated areas for the blueberry maggot Rhagoletis mendax Curran in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec

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Date issued: 2012-03-03

Preface

As described by the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) includes three stages: initiation, pest risk assessment and pest risk management. Initiating the PRA process involves identifying pests and pathways of concern and defining the PRA area. Pest risk assessment provides the scientific basis for the overall management of risk. Pest risk management is the process of identifying and evaluating potential mitigation measures which may be applied to reduce the identified pest risk to acceptable levels and selecting appropriate measures.

This Risk Management Document (RMD) includes a summary of the findings of a pest risk assessment and records the pest risk management process for the identified issue. It is consistent with the principles, terminology and guidelines provided in the IPPC standards for pest risk analysis.

Table of Contents

1.0 Summary

This risk management document (RMD) is a risk analysis process examining the risk associated with Rhagoletis mendax Curran, in Canada. The RMD includes a summary of the findings of recent pest risk assessments and identifies and evaluates the plant health risk of the potential establishment of this pest in Ontario and Quebec.

Rhagoletis mendax, the blueberry maggot, also known as the blueberry fruit fly, is a North American fruit fly pest chiefly of blueberries and huckleberries, (Vaccinium spp. and Gaylussacia spp., respectively). It has been present in the Maritime Provinces for many years, and was detected in southwest Quebec and Ontario in 1996 and 1999, respectively.

The blueberry maggot is considered a regulated pest to Canada and the movement of blueberry plants, blueberry fruit and used containers is regulated by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) under the Plant Protection Act, in order to mitigate further spread of this pest. Despite these efforts, blueberry maggot has spread throughout much of southern Quebec and Ontario since its first detection in these provinces more than ten years ago.

A pest risk assessment was initially conducted in 1989 and updates to the assessment were conducted in 1997, 2002 and 2010. The recent versions were updated by considering results of Canadian surveys, recent scientific literature, climate modelling and research carried out in both the United States (U.S.) and Canada. The overall pest risk, which considers both the likelihood of introduction and the potential impact of introduction, is considered to be low for Ontario and Quebec. As a result, it is appropriate to re-evaluate the phytosanitary measures that are currently in place for blueberry maggot.

This RMD provides various options for revising the geographic boundaries of the regulated areas for blueberry maggot in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. There is no intent to change the regulatory status of this pest in Canada, or to change the requirements for the movement of regulated articles from blueberry maggot regulated areas to non regulated areas of Canada or the U.S.

2.0 Purpose

The purpose of this risk management document (RMD) is to describe various options for modifying the geographic boundaries of the regulated areas for blueberry maggot in Ontario and Quebec only. British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador will still be considered pest-free areas and are not impacted by this RMD. CFIA consulted with stakeholders prior to making a decision to change the regulated areas in Ontario and Quebec. Comments from the stakeholder consultation will be used to update CFIA policy as it pertains to the regulated areas for blueberry maggot and will be used to improve the efficiency of the management of this pest. This document is intended to facilitate discussion of this issue with stakeholders.

3.0 Scope

This RMD is part of the risk analysis process examining the phytosanitary risk posed by blueberry maggot in Ontario and Quebec only and seeking to rationalize the boundaries of the regulated areas. The RMD is for the use of the CFIA and is intended to solicit feedback from stakeholders and to arrive at a risk management decision that will support a revision to the existing directive on blueberry maggot, D-02-04. It examines alternatives to the current policy and is based on a science-based pest risk assessment and several years of survey data.

4.0 Definitions

Definitions for terms used in this document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

5.0 Background

Rhagoletis mendax Curran, the blueberry maggot, also known as the blueberry fruit fly, is a North American fruit fly pest chiefly of blueberries and huckleberries (Vaccinium spp. and Gaylussacia spp. respectively).

The blueberry maggot is a pest that is indigenous to North America. Surveys for this pest were carried out between 1967 and 1988 and blueberry maggot was found only in Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and New-Brunswick. Although blueberry maggot was first noted in the Maritimes in the 1930s, biosystematic studies indicate that it is native to northeastern North America and has been distinct from its relatives since glaciation. The blueberry maggot was detected in southwest Quebec for the first time in 1996. The fly was subsequently first detected in Ontario in 1999.

In 1989, a Pest Risk Analysis was initiated to provide CFIA's management with recommendations for biological-based surveys and regulatory policy on blueberry maggot. Based on this risk assessment, risk mitigation options were developed including the development of a certification program for fresh fruit.

Surveys conducted in Quebec in 1997 indicated that the infestation was confined to a small area south of the St. Lawrence River. In response, a pest risk assessment of the blueberry maggot in relation to the Lac St-Jean region, the principal blueberry-producing area in Quebec, was carried out. Specifically, the Plant Health Risk Assessment Unit was asked to estimate the potential economic and environmental impacts that the blueberry maggot might have, should it become established in the Lac St-Jean region. The PRA indicated that the probability of entry and the impact of this pest were considered low-medium for the Lac St-Jean region.

In 2002, the CFIA requested an update to the PRA for blueberry maggot. At this time the overall risk rating (the likelihood of introduction combined with the consequences of introduction): was considered low for Canada, as a whole.

In 2002, CFIA directive D-02-04 was developed to describe the phytosanitary requirements for the importation and domestic movement of commodities regulated for the blueberry maggot from regulated areas of Canada and the United States. This directive regulates: plants of host species with roots, fresh fruits of cultivated and wild plants of host species, used containers (any receptacle, package, box, tray or wrapper previously used for containing, transporting, packaging or wrapping the fresh fruit or plants of the listed host species, irrespective of size or material.), used farm machinery and equipment (all tractors, burners, harvesters, blowers, rakes, sprayers or cultivators used in the cultivation or management of the crop of the listed host species), transportation vehicles (any conveyance used to move fruit, used containers or plants of the listed host species) and soil (soil alone or attached to plants of the listed host species or as a contaminant of fruit, used containers, farm machinery and equipment, or transportation vehicles). Surveys were continued on an annual basis in order to evaluate the distribution and monitor the spread of blueberry maggot in Canada.

Since the first discovery of the blueberry maggot in Quebec and Ontario, it has been found in a number of different locations within the two provinces. In the province of Quebec, from 1996 to 2001, it was found in 13 different municipalities covering eight different municipalités régionales de comté (MRC) (Le Haut-St-Laurent, Les Jardins-de-Napierville, Le Haut-Richelieu, Brome-Missisquoi, Joliette, Bonaventure, Rivière-du-Loup and Vaudreuil-Soulanges). From 2003 to 2006, three new municipalities including Trois-Rivières were regulated and from 2007 to 2009, seven new municipalities were regulated covering three other MRCs (Maskinongé, Les Maskoutains and La Haute-Yamaska). In the province of Ontario, from 1993 to 2009, surveys have detected the blueberry maggot at eight commercial highbush farms in townships across southern Ontario along the north shore of Lake Erie. In addition, a persistent native population of blueberry maggot has been discovered in large wild population of highbush plants in the Wainfleet Bog, Niagara.

Facilities located in these regulated areas and wishing to move regulated commodities to non-regulated areas may wish to be approved under the Blueberry Certification Program (BCP). CFIA must also carry out surveys in different areas of Canada to determine the distribution of this pest and make adjustments to the regulated areas. As new areas are regulated for blueberry maggot in Quebec and Ontario, there are new facilities to be certified under the BCP. These new activities require a significant number of CFIA resources.

In 2009, in response to the results of the surveys and new scientific information CFIA initiated a review of the pest risk assessment of the blueberry maggot in relation to the Lac St-Jean region. The review of the biological information on the blueberry maggot projected suitable climate zones for blueberry maggot based on current climate data (average temperature from 1950-2000) for Ontario and Quebec. Based on this information, the CFIA has decided to review the regulated areas for blueberry maggot in Ontario and Quebec. This RMD proposes different options in order to reconsider the geographical boundaries of the regulated areas for the blueberry maggot in Ontario and Quebec, Canada. British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador continue to be considered pest free areas and this pest is not known to occur west of the Rocky Mountains in Canada, based on official surveys done by CFIA.

6.0 Pest Risk Assessment Summary

6.1 CFIA Pest Risk Assessment

The following information is taken directly from recent CFIA survey data as well as from the Pest Facts Sheet and the pest risk assessment (2002-37) conducted in 2002 by J.A. Garland, and E.J. Dobesberger, Program Entomologists with the CFIA's Plant Health Risk Assessment Unit.

Common names:

English common names include blueberry maggot, blueberry maggot fly, and historically apple maggot of blueberries (prior to 1932).

Origin:

Rhagoletis mendax, the blueberry maggot or blueberry fruit fly, is a native North American fly that feeds chiefly on blueberries (Vaccinium spp.)

Hosts:

The blueberry maggot infests the fruits of Ericaceous plants, chiefly species of Gaylussacia and Vaccinium. It may not infest all available species of Vaccinium or Gaylussacia at any given site, and in the southern part of its range it displays almost complete monophage and preference for the deerberry, V. stamineum

The following hosts of blueberry maggot are listed in the directive D-02-04:

  • lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium, including V. pennsylvanicum)
  • sourtop blueberry (V. myrtilloides, including V. canadense)
  • highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum, including, V. ashei and V. atrococcum)
  • small cranberry (V. oxycoccus)
  • deerberry (V. stamineum)
  • lingonberry (V. vitis-idaea)
  • black huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata)
  • dangleberry (G. frondosa)
  • dwarf huckleberry (G. dumosa)
  • hillside blueberry (V. pallidum, including V. vacillans)

Distribution:

The blueberry maggot has been present in Canada in the Maritime Provinces (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island) for many years. It is now present in some townships in Southern Ontario and municipalities in Quebec as well. As of 2009, the majority of detections in the province of Quebec were in municipalities located south of the St. Lawrence River with some municipalities on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River as well. However, there are a few infested municipalities on the north shore, as well. Pest-free areas in Canada, based on annual surveys, include the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, and British Columbia. The blueberry maggot is present in several states in the U.S.: Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia.

Likelihood of introduction:

This is rated high; the blueberry maggot can be introduced via host plants with roots, host fruit, soil, and used containers from infested areas.

Establishment potential:

This is rated high because the pest could eventually reach 50° North; this includes all commercially significant wild and cultivated blueberry production areas in Canada;

Natural Spread potential:

This is rated low for natural spread based on what is known about Rhagoletis flies in general;

Potential economic impact:

This is rated medium to account for loss in berry production and quality of fresh product, and for additional costs that may be incurred for monitoring, control, and post-harvest handling. This may also affect exports of fresh fruit to the United States and other countries.

If the fruit is destined for processing, then the impact is negligible.

Potential environmental impact:

This is rated negligible because no environmental change has been reported as a result of the presence of this pest.

Recommendations:

The overall phytosanitary risk posed by blueberry maggot to Ontario and Quebec is considered low (additional details are provided in section 7.0 Pest Risk Management Considerations). This suggests that CFIA should re-evaluate the policy and phytosanitary measures that are currently in place for blueberry maggot in Ontario and Quebec. A PRA is in development to evaluate the overall phytosanitary risk posed by blueberry maggot to British Columbia and Newfoundland and Labrador.

6.2 CFIA Pest Risk Assessment Update

Additional information relating to the CFIA pest risk assessment was gathered in January 2010 as a result of questions regarding the potential survival of the blueberry maggot in the Lac St-Jean area. The summary of this document (Damus 2010) is presented below.

  • Currently, the blueberry maggot likely cannot survive in Lac St-Jean region or in similar northern areas of Quebec and Ontario, even though the host is present, due to the cold climate.
  • Former RMD's considered the consequence of cold soil on overwintering pupae and concluded that soil temperature below -23°C are the key factor limiting the spread of blueberry maggot. Current modeling work corroborates field reports which suggest that it is more likely that unreliable temperature patterns (late spring and early fall frosts) which destroy the berry crop are more likely than simple soil temperature to be the primary factor limiting northward expansion of this fly.
    • This means that the fly could possibly survive for a short period in northern areas, but that long-term establishment under the current climate regime is not likely.

Click on image for larger view
Figure 1 - Suitable current climate for blueberry maggot

Figure 1: Projected suitable climate zone for the blueberry maggot, based on current climate data (1950-2000 means). The black dots represent known locations where R. mendax is found, the white dots represent important Quebec blueberry production farms (La Route Bleue in southern Quebec and Lac St-Jean region). Map colours represent the area suitable for the blueberry maggot to establish and survive; areas marked green are unsuitable and those marked red are likely to be suitable. See Liu et al. 2006 for more information.

This map depicts the climate range of the blueberry maggot within Southern Ontario, South-western Quebec and the North-eastern United States. Suitable climate occurs from plant hardiness zone 3b to 8b. This map also depicts a cluster of blueberry production facilities in La Route Bleue in Southern Quebec and the Lac Saint-Jean region. Black dots mark the areas in which blueberry maggot is know to occur. In the United States, there are a few dots per state from Ohio south to Virginia and east to Maine. The density of the dots increases significantly in South-eastern Maine. In Canada there is a concentration of dots stretching from the London region east to Hamilton and then in Monteregie and in the Atlantic Provinces.

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Figure 2 - Current climate limiting factors

Figure 2: Factors limiting survival within the range determined suitable for the blueberry maggot, R. mendax, in southern Quebec. Results suggest that it is the unreliability of seasonal weather patterns that is the key factor limiting the establishment of this pest.

This map depicts the factors that limit the survival rate of the blueberry maggot within the climate range. The limiting factors are the following:

  • In the United States south and the south of Quebec and Ontario, maximum temperature during the driest months is a limiting factor. This region of the United States includes most of the blueberry maggot sites.
  • Along the north and south shore of the Saint Lawrence River, the temperature seasonality, the temperature annual range and the isothermality are limiting factors.
  • La Route Bleue region is outside of the suitable climate range for the pest.

7.0 Pest Risk Management Considerations

7.1 Natural Spread Potential

The natural dispersal of the blueberry maggot is limited because the adults are weak flyers and tend to stay mostly in the vicinity of the host plant(s) and near the ground. Also, blueberry maggot adults tend to form stable populations in the same locale in successive years and seldom take flight for more than a few inches from leaf to leaf or from one plant to another. Dispersive flights have been observed in other Rhagoletis species deprived of suitable fruits for oviposition, and such flights have been inferred for the blueberry maggot from higher fly captures in lowbush blueberry crop fields adjacent to vegetative fields that were recently pruned, but the distances involved were less than 300 metres. On present evidence, no Rhagoletis species has been reported to make dispersal flights that would be more than local in scope.

7.2 Potential Economic Impacts

Although the marketability of fresh fruit may be reduced, the marketability of fruit for processing is not affected by the blueberry maggot and the impact of this pest in areas that produce fruit exclusively for processing is considered negligible. For instance, in the Maritime Provinces, crop loss due to blueberry maggot is considered minimal in lowbush-producing areas, and in the Lac St-Jean region of Quebec, practically all lowbush-production is intended for processing.

The direct impacts of blueberry maggot on fresh fruit include yield and quality reduction as a result of larval feeding within the fruit. Producers also experience increased costs related to pest control. Indirect effects include those costs associated with the export of fresh fruits to countries that require products to be certified free from blueberry maggot.

Establishment of the blueberry maggot in a new region could threaten growers with pest-control costs in addition to costs already incurred to control other insects on blueberry plants. Nevertheless, insecticides used to control leaf-feeding beetles and caterpillars would be effective against the blueberry maggot. Also, natural enemies are present, (i.e. predatory mites, other arthropods, fungal pathogens, and small mammals); however, these may not be effective at reducing blueberry maggot populations below damaging levels. If pesticides must be applied to control this pest, growers have the flexibility to choose products and practices that target phytophagous pests but do not harm beneficial agents. Other integrated pest management practices can be used in the production site to control blueberry maggot. In New Brunswick, for instance, blueberry growers apply insecticides to control the blueberry maggot, but only on about 15% of the blueberry land in any crop year.

7.3 Areas of Cultivation

Blueberry production in Ontario and Quebec is divided in two categories: lowbush blueberries and high blueberries.

Quebec:

Highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum, production is mainly located on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River.

Highbush blueberry is a major commercial species in blueberry plantations and is endemic in western and central Quebec but extends only as far as Québec City (Marie-Victorin 1935; Vander Kloet 1988). These highbush blueberry plants are not native to the Lac St-Jean region (Lavoie 1968; Rousseau 1974), but may have been introduced there by now for variety trials.

Lowbush blueberry production is mainly located in the Lac St-Jean region with the majority of the production destined for processing. Lowbush blueberry plants are mainly located on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River. The lowbush blueberries, Vaccinium angustifolium, sourtop blueberry, Vaccinium myrtilloides, black huckleberry and Gaylussacia baccata are endemic to the Lac St-Jean region. The lowbush blueberry, and to a lesser extent the sourtop blueberry, predominate in the blueberry fields around Lac St-Jean. Other Vaccinium species in the Lac St-Jean region include Vaccinium caespitosum, V. ovalifolium, V. oxycoccus, V. uliginosum var. alpinum, and V. vitis-idaea var. minus.

Ontario:

Highbush blueberry production is mainly located in southern Ontario. The highbush blueberry grows wild in southwestern and eastern Ontario. The geographical area in southern Ontario where these shrubs can be grown is limited by winter hardiness: plants will be killed to the snow level by temperatures of about -30°C. This restricts the areas in which highbush blueberries can be grown and cropped to those within hardiness zones 5 to 7.

Lowbush blueberry production is mainly located north of Highway 7.

7.4 Potential Trade Impacts

The blueberry maggot is present in various states in the U.S. and in various provinces in Canada. British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador are considered to be free of blueberry maggot. Regulated commodities can only be moved from a regulated area to a non-regulated area in Canada or the United States under certain conditions. Depending on the case, a Movement Certificate, a Phytosanitary Certificate or Movement Certification Label is required in order to certify the shipment of regulated commodities as free from the blueberry maggot.

7.5 Existing Domestic, Provincial and other Programs

The Blueberry Certification Program (BCP) is a program designed to establish pest free places of production and to allow the movement of regulated commodities from a regulated area to a non regulated area within Canada or the United States. This program is based on approval of growers, pest monitoring and control procedures, grading, fruit sampling and testing. All blueberries shipped under the BCP must originate from growers approved by the National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of the country of origin or approved under its authority and must originate from a monitored production area. Shipments must be free of all living stages of quarantine pests and meet the conditions for other regulated pests, and be practically free of soil, sand, leaves and plant debris, including woody materials.

British Columbia and Newfoundland both regulate the movement of commodities that could be infested by blueberry maggot. British Columbia's restrictions are described in the its Blueberry Maggot Control Regulations (B.C. Regulation 280/90). Newfoundland's are described in the Newfoundland Berry Regulations (Newfoundland Regulation 1195/96).

8.0 Pest Risk Management Options

In this section, several pest risk management options are presented which outline policy alternatives for blueberry maggot. The benefits and consequences of each option are discussed.

8.1 Options for Quebec

The following options 1, 2 and 3 are for the province of Quebec.

8.1.1 Pest Risk Management Option 1: Regulate the entire province of Quebec

Under this option the entire province of Quebec would be regulated for the blueberry maggot. This means that the entire province would be considered infested or incapable of supporting a blueberry maggot population.

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This map depicts the entire province of Quebec as being regulated for blueberry maggot under option 1 for Québec.

Figure 3: The entire province of Quebec would be regulated for blueberry maggot under option 1 for Quebec.
Benefits:
  • This option 1 for Quebec covers all suitable regions of the province of Quebec for the establishment of the blueberry maggot as per the bioclimatic model (figure 1 and 2).
  • Producers in Quebec would not need to participate in the BCP if they ship their blueberries only within Quebec or to other regulated areas in Canada.
  • Producers in Quebec would not need to have their commodities certified free from blueberry maggot if they ship only within Quebec or to other regulated areas in Canada, as described in D-02-04.
  • Note that other requirements could apply for other regulated pests.
Consequences:
  • As the entire province would be regulated, all Quebec blueberry producers who intend to ship to non-regulated areas in Canada would need to participate in the BCP.
  • Regulated commodities shipped from anywhere in Quebec to non-regulated areas in Canada would need to be certified free from blueberry maggot, as described in D-02-04.
  • Quebec producers would need to implement integrated pest management practices in their production sites to prevent introduction of blueberry maggot.

8.1.2 Pest Risk Management Option 2: Regulate certain MRCs in Quebec

Under this option all MRCs located on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River and some on the north shore would be regulated for the blueberry maggot. The following table (each MRC is associated to a specific number that will be reflected on the map) and figure 4 show the MRCs that would be considered regulated under option 2:

MRCs to be regulated on the north shore of St. Lawrence River in Quebec.
  • 23 Communauté-Urbaine-de-Québec
  • 34 Portneuf
  • 36 Le Centre-de-la-Mauricie
  • 37 Les Chenaux
  • 51 Maskinongé / Ville Shawinigan
  • 52 D'Autray
  • 60 L'Assomption
  • 61 Joliette
  • 63 Montcalm
  • 64 Les Moulins
  • 65 Laval
  • 66 Montreal
  • 71 Vaudreuil-Soulanges
  • 72 Deux-Montagnes
  • 73 Thérèse-De Blainville
  • 74 Mirabel
  • 75 La Rivière-du-Nord
  • 76 Argenteuil
  • 77 Les Pays-d'en-Haut
  • 80 Papineau
  • 81 Gatineau
  • 82 Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais
MRCs to be regulated on the south shore of St. Lawrence River in Quebec
  • 02 Le Rocher-Percé
  • 03 La Côte-de-Gaspé
  • 04 La Haute-Gaspésie
  • 05 Bonaventure
  • 06 Avignon
  • 07 La Matapédia
  • 08 Matane
  • 09 La Mitis
  • 10 Rimouski-Neigette
  • 11 Les Basques
  • 12 Rivière-du-Loup
  • 13 Témiscouata
  • 14 Kamouraska
  • 17 L'Islet
  • 18 Montmagny
  • 19 Bellechasse
  • 24 Desjardins
  • 25 Les Chutes-de-la-Chaudière
  • 26 La Nouvelle-Beauce
  • 27 Robert-Cliche
  • 28 Les Etchemins
  • 29 Beauce-Sartigan
  • 30 Le Granit
  • 31 L'Amiante
  • 32 L'Érable
  • 33 Lotbinière
  • 38 Bécancour
  • 39 Arthabaska
  • 40 Asbestos
  • 41 Le Haut-Saint-François
  • 42 Le Val-Saint-François
  • 43 La Région-Sherbrookoise
  • 44 Coaticook
  • 45 Memphrémagog
  • 46 Brome-Missisquoi
  • 47 La Haute-Yamaska
  • 48 Acton
  • 49 Drummond
  • 50 Nicolet-Yamaska
  • 53 Le Bas-Richelieu
  • 54 Les Maskoutains
  • 55 Rouville
  • 56 Le Haut-Richelieu
  • 57 La Vallée-du-Richelieu
  • 58 Champlain
  • 59 Lajemmerais
  • 67 Roussillon
  • 68 Les Jardins-de-Napierville
  • 69 Le Haut-Saint-Laurent
  • 70 Beauharnois-Salaberry

Click on image for larger view
Figure 4 - Blueberry Maggot Rhagoletis Mendax Option 2 - Quebec - 2011

Figure 4: MRCs that would be regulated for blueberry maggot under option 2 for Quebec.

This map shows the municipalités régionales de comté to be regulated under option 2 for Quebec. All municipalités régionales de comté along the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River are regulated as well as a cluster of municipalités régionales de comté along the north shore from Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais east to Communauté-Urbaine-de-Québec.

Benefits:
  • This option 2 for Quebec covers the majority of the suitable regions on the south shore and north shore of the St. Lawrence River of the province of Quebec for the establishment of the blueberry maggot as per the bioclimate model (figure 1 and 2).
  • The majority of Quebec's highbush producers are located within these MRCs.
  • This option would allow movement of regulated commodities within all regulated areas in Quebec and from these areas to all regulated areas in Canada without any specific requirements regarding the blueberry maggot.
  • Producers in this area would not need to participate in the BCP and would not need to have their commodities certified free from the blueberry maggot if they ship only within these regulated areas or to other regulated areas in Canada.
  • All other northern MRCs would still be considered non-regulated (pest free areas) and the appropriate requirements would still apply for movement of regulated commodities originating in regulated areas to these non-regulated MRCs, as described in D-02-04.
  • Note that other requirements could apply for other regulated pests.
Consequences:
  • Blueberry producers in these MRCs who intend to ship to the rest of Quebec or to other non-regulated areas in Canada would need to participate in the BCP.
  • Regulated commodities shipped from these MRCs to the rest of Quebec or to other non-regulated areas in Canada would need to be certified free from blueberry maggot, as described in D-02-04.
  • Producers located within these regulated MRCs would need to implement integrated pest management practices in their production sites to prevent introduction of blueberry maggot.

8.1.3 Pest Risk Management Option 3: Regulate a larger number of MRCs

Under this option all MRCs located on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River and some on the north shore would be regulated for the blueberry maggot. The difference with option 2 is that MRC La Côte-de-Beaupré, MRC La Jacques-Cartier and MRC Ile d'Orléans would also be regulated. The following table (each MRC is associated to a specific number that will be reflected on the map) and figure 5 show the MRCs that would be regulated under option 3:

MRCs to be regulated on the north shore of St. Lawrence River in Quebec.
  • 20 Ville d'Orléans
  • 21 La Côte-de-Beaupré
  • 22 La Jacques-Cartier
  • 23 Communauté-Urbaine-de-Québec
  • 34 Portneuf
  • 36 Le Centre-de-la-Mauricie
  • 37 Les Chenaux
  • 51 Maskinongé / Ville Shawinigan
  • 52 D'Autray
  • 60 L'Assomption
  • 61 Joliette
  • 63 Montcalm
  • 64 Les Moulins
  • 65 Laval
  • 66 Montreal
  • 71 Vaudreuil-Soulanges
  • 72 Deux-Montagnes
  • 73 Thérèse-De Blainville
  • 74 Mirabel
  • 75 La Rivière-du-Nord
  • 76 Argenteuil
  • 77 Les Pays-d'en-Haut
  • 80 Papineau
  • 81 Gatineau
  • 82 Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais
MRCs to be regulated on the south shore of St. Lawrence River in Quebec.
  • 02 Le Rocher-Percé
  • 03 La Côte-de-Gaspé
  • 04 La Haute-Gaspésie
  • 05 Bonaventure
  • 06 Avignon
  • 07 La Matapédia
  • 08 Matane
  • 09 La Mitis
  • 10 Rimouski-Neigette
  • 11 Les Basques
  • 12 Rivière-du-Loup
  • 13 Témiscouata
  • 14 Kamouraska
  • 17 L'Islet
  • 18 Montmagny
  • 19 Bellechasse
  • 24 Desjardins
  • 25 Les Chutes-de-la-Chaudière
  • 26 La Nouvelle-Beauce
  • 27 Robert-Cliche
  • 28 Les Etchemins
  • 29 Beauce-Sartigan
  • 30 Le Granit
  • 31 L'Amiante
  • 32 L'Érable
  • 33 Lotbinière
  • 38 Bécancour
  • 39 Arthabaska
  • 40 Asbestos
  • 41 Le Haut-Saint-François
  • 42 Le Val-Saint-François
  • 43 La Région-Sherbrookoise
  • 44 Coaticook
  • 45 Memphrémagog
  • 46 Brome-Missisquoi
  • 47 La Haute-Yamaska
  • 48 Acton
  • 49 Drummond
  • 50 Nicolet-Yamaska
  • 53 Le Bas-Richelieu
  • 54 Les Maskoutains
  • 55 Rouville
  • 56 Le Haut-Richelieu
  • 57 La Vallée-du-Richelieu
  • 58 Champlain
  • 59 Lajemmerais
  • 67 Roussillon
  • 68 Les Jardins-de-Napierville
  • 69 Le Haut-Saint-Laurent
  • 70 Beauharnois-Salaberry

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Figure 5 - Blueberry Maggot Rhagoletis Mendax Option 3 - Quebec - 2011

Figure 5: MRCs that would be regulated for blueberry maggot under option 3 for Quebec.

This map shows the municipalités régionales de comté to be regulated under option 3 for Quebec. All municipalités régionales de comté along the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River are regulated as well as a cluster of municipalités régionales de comté along the north shore from Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais east to La Côte-de-Beaupré.

Benefits:
  • This option 3 for Quebec covers the majority of the suitable regions on the south and north shores of the St.Lawrence River of the province of Quebec for the establishment of the blueberry maggot as per the bioclimatic model (figure 1 and 2).
  • The majority of Quebec's highbush producers are located within these MRCs.
  • This option includes MRC La Côte-de-Beaupré, MRC La Jacques-Cartier and MRC Île d'Orléans in order to allow the movement of regulated fresh fruit within these municipalities located around Quebec City without requiring certification.
  • The majority of the territory of MRC La Côte-de-Beaupré and MRC La Jacques-Cartier is not suitable for the establishment of the blueberry maggot (see Figure 2: Limiting factors for survival of blueberry maggot).
  • This option would allow movement of all regulated commodities within all regulated areas in Quebec and from these areas to all regulated areas in Canada without any specific requirements regarding the blueberry maggot.
  • Producers in this area would not need to participate in the BCP and would not need to have their commodities certified free from the blueberry maggot if they ship only within these regulated areas or to other regulated areas in Canada.
  • All other MRCs would still be considered non-regulated (pest free areas) and the appropriate requirements would still apply for movement of regulated commodities originating in regulated areas into these MRCs, as described in D-02-04.
  • Note that other requirements could apply for other regulated pests.
Consequences:
  • Blueberry producers in the regulated MRCs who intend to ship to the rest of Quebec or to other non-regulated areas in Canada would need to participate in the BCP.
  • Regulated commodities shipped from the regulated area to the rest of Quebec or to other non-regulated areas in Canada would need to be certified free from blueberry maggot, as described in D-02-04.
  • Producers located within this regulated area would need to implement integrated pest management practices in their production sites to prevent introduction of the blueberry maggot.

8.2 Options for Ontario

The following three options are for the province of Ontario.

8.2.1 Pest Risk Management Option 1: Regulate the entire province of Ontario

Under this option the entire province of Ontario would be regulated for the blueberry maggot.

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This map depicts the entire province of Ontario as being regulated for blueberry maggot under option 1 for Ontario.

Figure 6: The entire province of Ontario would be regulated for blueberry maggot under option 1 for Ontario.
Benefits:
  • This option 1 for Ontario covers all suitable regions of the province of Ontario for the establishment of the blueberry maggot as per the bioclimatic model (figure 1 and 2).
  • Producers in Ontario would not need to participate in the BCP if they ship their blueberries only within Ontario or to other regulated areas in Canada.
  • Producers in Ontario would not need to have their commodities certified free from blueberry maggot if they ship only within Ontario or to other regulated areas in Canada.
  • Note that other requirements could apply for other regulated pests.
Consequences:
  • As the entire province would be regulated, all Ontario blueberry producers who intend to ship to non-regulated areas in Canada would need to participate in the BCP.
  • Regulated commodities shipped from anywhere in Ontario to non-regulated areas in Canada would need to be certified free from the blueberry maggot, as described in D-02-04.
  • Ontario producers would need to implement integrated pest management practices in their production sites to prevent introduction of blueberry maggot.

8.2.2 Pest Risk Management Option 2: Regulate a portion of southern Ontario

Under this option, the area south of Roads 132, 41, 28, 121, 118 and 11 (refer to figure 7) would be regulated for the blueberry maggot.

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This map depicts the area to be regulated under option 2 for Ontario. The proposed area is all of Ontario south of Roads 132, 41, 28, 121, 118 and 11.

Figure 7: The area south of Roads 132, 41, 28, 121, 118 and 11 would be regulated for blueberry maggot under option 2 for Ontario.
Benefits:
  • This option 2 for Ontario covers the majority of the southern regions of Ontario suitable for the establishment of the blueberry maggot as per the bioclimatic model (figure 1 and 2).
  • The highbush blueberry production is mainly located in Southern Ontario.
  • The majority of Ontario's highbush producers are located within this area.
  • This option would allow movement of all regulated commodities within all regulated areas in Ontario and from these areas to all regulated areas in Canada without any specific requirements regarding the blueberry maggot.
  • Producers in this area would not need to participate in the BCP and would not need to have their commodities certified free from the blueberry maggot if they ship only within these regulated areas or to other regulated areas in Canada.
  • The area north of these roads would still be considered non-regulated (pest free areas) and the appropriate requirements would still apply for movement of regulated commodities originating in regulated areas to this non-regulated northern area, as described in D-02-04.
  • Note that other requirements could apply for other regulated pests.
Consequences:
  • Blueberry producers in the regulated area who intend to ship to the rest of Ontario or to other non-regulated areas in Canada would need to participate in the BCP.
  • Regulated commodities shipped from the regulated area to the rest of Ontario or to other non-regulated areas in Canada would need to be certified free from the blueberry maggot, as described in D-02-04.
  • Producers located within this regulated area would need to implement integrated pest management practices in their production sites to prevent introduction of the blueberry maggot.

8.2.3 Pest Risk Management Option 3: Regulate southern Ontario

Under this option, the area south of Highway 17 and 108, 546, 129 and 101 (see Figure 8) would be regulated for the blueberry maggot.

Click on image for larger view
This map depicts the area to be regulated under option 3 for Ontario. The proposed area is all of Ontario south of Highways 17 and 108, 546, 129 and 101.

Figure 8: The area south of Highway 17 and 108, 546, 129 and 101 would be regulated for blueberry maggot under option 3 for Ontario.
Benefits:
  • This option 3 for Ontario covers the majority of the regions of Ontario suitable for the establishment of the blueberry maggot as per the bioclimate model (figure 1 and 2).
  • The highbush blueberry production is mainly located in Southern Ontario and the lowbush blueberry production is mainly located north of Highway 7.
  • This option would allow movement of all regulated commodities within all regulated areas in Ontario and from these areas to all regulated areas in Canada without any specific requirements regarding the blueberry maggot.
  • Producers in this area would not need to participate in the BCP and would not need to have their commodities certified free from the blueberry maggot if they ship only within these regulated areas or to other regulated areas in Canada.
  • The area north of these roads would still be considered non-regulated (pest free areas) and the appropriate requirements would still apply for movement of regulated commodities originating in regulated areas to this non-regulated northern area. Details on these requirements can be found in the directive D-02-04.
  • Note that other requirements could apply for other regulated pests.
Consequences:
  • Blueberry producers in the regulated area who intend to ship to the rest of Ontario or to other non-regulated areas in Canada would need to participate in the BCP.
  • Regulated commodities shipped from the regulated area to the rest of Ontario or to other non-regulated areas in Canada would need to be certified free from the blueberry maggot, as described in D-02-04.
  • Producers located within this regulated area would need to implement integrated pest management practices in their production sites to prevent introduction of the blueberry maggot.

8.3 British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador

This RMD does not propose any changes to the regulation of blueberry maggot that would impact provinces other than Ontario and Quebec. British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador continue to be considered pest free areas and movement of regulated articles into these regions will continue to be regulated as per D-02-04.

9.0 Consultation

CFIA staff, other government agencies and industry were consulted during the development of this RMD. Comments on this risk management document and on preferred options were solicited from Canadian stakeholders. The first consultation period was until June 21st, 2010. As per the comments received at that time, we extended the consultation period until November 26th, 2010 to allow an appropriate time-frame for the submission of comments.

After reviewing all of the risk management options and conducting consultations with stakeholders, the following decision has been made.

10.0 Pest Risk Management Decisions

10.1 Decision for Quebec

CFIA has decided to implement the changes described in the option 3. Most of the comments received from Quebec stakeholders support this option. Therefore, all MRCs located on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River and those areas that are regulated on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River will be considered as regulated for blueberry maggot, as specified at section 7.1.3. The remaining MRCs on the north shore, including the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean region, will continue to be considered as non-regulated and surveys to verify pest freedom will continue to be conducted. If blueberry maggot is detected in a MRC on the north shore that is currently not regulated, the MRC would then become a regulated area.

This option allows the movement of regulated commodities within all regulated areas in Quebec and from these regulated areas to all other regulated areas within Canada without any specific requirements related to the blueberry maggot. The implementation of the directive D-02-04 will continue to ensure a control on the movement of regulated commodities from regulated to non-regulated areas and mitigate the risks of spreading blueberry maggot to non-regulated areas of Canada. Producers located within regulated areas will implement pest management measures at their own discretion.

10.2 Decision for Ontario

The Ontario based stakeholders who participated in the consultation did not agree with any of the three options presented in the RMD.

There are currently three townships and five sites regulated for blueberry maggot in Ontario. This insect is expected to slowly spread by natural means from its current limited distribution.

The regulatory status of blueberry maggot in Southern Ontario will remain unchanged.

CFIA will continue to monitor the blueberry maggot situation in Ontario. Changes in the distribution of the blueberry maggot or any other pertinent information may involve a review of the regulated areas.

11.0 Next Steps

By the publication of this Risk Management Decision Document, the CFIA is announcing its intent to proceed with the new geographic boundaries of the regulated areas for the blueberry maggot in the province of Quebec as specified in the decision above. As of March 31, 2011, the CFIA will consider these new boundaries as effective.

The CFIA will notify Canadian stakeholders and trading partners potentially impacted by the new boundaries of the regulated areas for the blueberry maggot.

The directive D-02-04, which is currently under revision, will be updated to take into consideration the stakeholders concerns and to protect the non-regulated areas against the further spread of the blueberry maggot. The CFIA will consult with stakeholders prior to the release of the revised directive.

12.0 References

Websites:

Documentation:

  • D-02-04, Phytosanitary requirements for the importation from the continental United States and for domestic movement of commodities regulated for blueberry maggot, Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).
  • Damus M., Request for biological information, estimate of potential distribution of R. mendax Curran in Lac St-Jean area of Quebec, 2009, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, PRA No. 2002-37 Update.
  • Garland J.A. and Dobesberger E.J., Plant Health Risk Assessment on blueberry maggot, 2002, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, PRA No. 2002-37.
  • Garland J.A. and Watler D.E., Pest Risk Assessment on blueberry maggot with particular reference to Lac St-Jean, Quebec, 1997, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, PRA 97-63.
  • Watler D.E., Pest Risk Analysis on blueberry maggot, 1989, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, PRA-89-12.

13.0 Endorsement

Approved by: Chief Plant Health Officer

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