D-01-01: Phytosanitary Requirements to Prevent the Entry and Spread of Phytophthora ramorum

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Effective Date: June 13, 2013
(18th Revision)

Subject

This directive contains the phytosanitary requirements for the importation of propagative and non-propagative host materials of a serious pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum (the causal organism of Sudden Oak Death).

This directive has been revised to update the review date, as well as minor administrative changes. The content of this directive has not changed.

Table of Contents

Review

This directive will be updated as required. For further information or clarification, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

Endorsement

Approved by:

space
Chief Plant Health Officer

Distribution List

  1. Directive mail list (Regions, PHRA, USDA)
  2. Provincial Government, Industry (determined by Author)
  3. National Industry Organizations (determined by Author)
  4. Internet

Introduction

Phytophthora ramorum is a fungus-like plant pathogen that causes a disease known as Ramorum Blight on a wide variety of nursery stock. It is also the cause of Sudden Oak Death (SOD) that was first observed in coastal California in the mid-1990's and now occurs as far north as southern Oregon. Another less damaging disease, known as Ramorum Blight and Dieback, has been detected in the landscape in Europe and the U.S. and has also been found on nursery stock in Europe, the U.S. and Canada.

A pest risk assessment was completed by the Plant Health Risk Assessment Unit of the CFIA in March of 2002, and was revised in May, 2006 and again in January, 2008. This most recent assessment has concluded that the potential environmental impacts of the pest on most areas of Canada is low, while for south coastal British Columbia, the risk is medium. However, the pest remains important in the trade of plants and plant products and several of Canada's trading partners continue to regulate it. As such, the maintenance of regulations to prevent the entry of the pest into Canada remains essential. The pest risk assessment indicates that plants, plant parts, soil and growing media may all play a role in the movement and dispersal of P. ramorum.

Scope

This directive outlines the requirements for import of hosts and vectors of Phytophthora ramorum to Canada.

References

This directive supercedes D-01-01 (17th Revision).

Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronnyms

Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

1.0 General Requirements

1.1 Legislative Authority

The Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c.22
The Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette: Part I (as amended from time to time)

1.2 Fees

The CFIA is charging fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported product, please contact the Import Service Centre (ISC). Anyone requiring other information regarding fees may contact any local CFIA office or visit our Fees Notice Web page.

1.3 Regulated Pests

Phytophthora ramorum (the causal pathogen of Sudden Oak Death and Ramorum Blight/Dieback).

1.4 Regulated Commodities

All plants and plant parts of those plants listed in Appendix 1.

Plants and plant parts including branches, wreaths, greenery, cuttings and prunings, cut foliage, and other parts of plants without flowers.

All non-manufactured wood products including logs, lumber, bark (including bark in association with epiphytic orchids), bark chips, wood mulch, pulpwood and firewood of the specific hosts listed as being regulated in Appendix 1.

Soil and related matter or growing medium, either alone, or in association with plant material.

1.5 Commodities Exempt

All processed wood material.

All non-manufactured wood products including logs, bark (including bark in association with epiphytic orchids), bark chips, bark mulch, pulpwood and firewood of specific host species excluded from regulation as identified in Appendix 1.

Wood chips and sawdust made from debarked logs.

Seeds and fruit.

Plants in vitro.

Dried plant material (as described in Section 2 of CFIA policy directive D-95-09, Importation of Dried Material).

Cut flowers (Note: branches of hosts are regulated).

1.6 Regulated Areas

A list of areas regulated for the control of Phytophthora ramorum is provided in Appendix 2. These are broken down into regulated countries, regulated states of the U.S. and regulated areas within regulated states of the U.S.. Requirements specified in the directive differ for commodities originating from a specific regulated region.

2.0 Import Requirements

A summary of the import requirement is contained in Appendix 7.

The import requirements stipulated in this policy are specific to preventing the entry of P. ramorum only. Additional import requirements may exist for other pests and/or commodities and these may be found by consulting the Plant Protection Policy Directives page.

2.1 Soil

All soil and related matter, whether in association with plants, or alone, is prohibited entry into Canada from all countries other than the continental U.S.

Importations of soil in bulk (without plants) from the U.S. are prohibited.

Importation of soil and related matter in association with plants from the U.S. must meet the requirements specified in section 2.2.4.

Policy directive D-95-26, Phytosanitary Requirements for Soil and Related Matter, Alone or in Association with Plants provides details of the CFIA's policies relating to soil.

2.2 Plants

2.2.1 Non-Regulated Plants from Regulated Areas Other than the Continental U.S.

A Permit to Import is required.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required.

Additional requirements may exist in other policy directives and/or on the Permit to Import issued for the importation of the plants.

2.2.2 Regulated Plants from Regulated Areas Other Than the Continental U.S.

A Permit to Import is required.

Regulated plants originating from a country that has implemented a Pest Free Certification Program approved by the CFIA for P. ramorum may enter Canada in accordance with the requirements specified in Appendix 3. Appendix 4 contains a list of countries that have a CFIA approved pest free certification program for P. ramorum in place.

The plants must be free of all growing media, soil and related matter; and

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required and must accompany the consignment. The following additional declaration must be present on the Phytosanitary Certificate:

"The plant material in this consignment meets the CFIA requirements for freedom from Phytophthora ramorum".

2.2.3 Regulated and Non-regulated Plants From Non-Regulated Areas of the Continental U.S. (other than California, Oregon and Washington)

A Permit to Import is not required (unless specified in other policy directives).

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required and must accompany the consignment.

2.2.4 Regulated and Non-Regulated Plants From Non-Regulated Areas of California, Oregon and Washington

Note: Requirements for plants that have been produced in or originate from regulated areas in California and Oregon as identified in Appendix 2 are described in Section 2.2.5 and 2.2.6. Plants which originate or have been produced in a regulated area as identified in Appendix 2, but have been grown for at least one growing season (of at least 120 days) in a non-regulated area are regulated by Section 2.2.4

A Permit to Import is not required (unless specified in other policy directives).

Shipments to Canada of regulated plants with or without soil or non-regulated plants with soil from non-regulated areas of California, Oregon and Washington must meet the requirements specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulation 301.92 Sub Part Phytophthora ramorum - PDF (137 kb).

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required and must accompany the consignment and contain the following additional declaration:

"The shipment conforms to 7 CFR 301.92 which regulates the movement of nursery stock for Phytophthora ramorum from the states of California, Oregon and Washington".

Shipments of non-regulated plants without soil from non-regulated areas of California, Oregon and Washington may enter Canada provided the plants are accompanied with a Phytosanitary Certificate.

2.2.5 Non-Regulated Plants from Regulated Areas of California, Oregon and Washington

Non-regulated plants produced in a regulated area are subject to certification requirements to address risks of soil and related matter.

A Permit to Import is not required (unless specified in other policy directives).

Shipments of non-regulated plants with soil from regulated areas of California, Oregon and Washington may enter Canada provided the plants were produced in a pest free place of production as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulation 301.92 Sub Part Phytophthora ramorum.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required and must accompany the consignment and contain the following additional declaration:

"The shipment conforms to 7 CFR 301.92 which regulates the movement of nursery stock for Phytophthora ramorum from the states of California, Oregon and Washington".

Alternatively, non-regulated plants with soil produced in a regulated area may be accompanied by a phytosanitary certificate verifying that the soil in which the plants were produced was tested in accordance with the standards prescribed in Appendix 6. The phytosanitary certificate must contain the following additional declaration:

"The soil originated in a production site in which, on the basis of official surveys, Phytophthora ramorum is not known to occur."

Shipments of non-regulated plants without soil from regulated areas of California, Oregon and Washington may enter Canada provided the plants are accompanied with a Phytosanitary Certificate.

2.2.6 Regulated Plants from Regulated Areas of California, Oregon and Washington

A Permit to Import is not required (unless specified in other policy directives).

Shipments of regulated plants from regulated areas of California, Oregon and Washington may enter Canada provided the plants were produced in a pest free place of production as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulation 301.92 Sub Part Phytophthora ramorum.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required and must accompany the consignment and contain the following additional declaration:

"The shipment conforms to 7 CFR 301.92 which regulates the movement of nursery stock for Phytophthora ramorum from the states of California, Oregon and Washington".

2.3 Non-propagative Material

2.3.1 Non-Propagative Plant Parts of Regulated Plants Including Foliage, Branches and other Parts of Plants without Flowers from Non-Regulated Areas

Note: Branches larger than 1.5 cm are regulated in policy directive D-02-12.

Regulated non-propagative plant parts may be imported to Canada from non-regulated areas (see Appendix 2).

A Permit to Import is not required.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is not required.

2.3.2 Non-Propagative Plant Parts of Regulated Plants Including Foliage, Branches and other Parts of Plants without Flowers from Regulated Areas

A Permit to Import is not required.

Regulated non-propagative material from regulated areas (see Appendix 2) may be imported to Canada under one of the following two options.

Option 1: Treatment

The regulated non-propagative plant parts must have been treated in a manner that ensures that the pathogen has been eliminated. Appendix 5 contains a list of approved treatments. Importers wishing to use alternative treatments must submit to CFIA the details of the treatment and any applicable scientific information demonstrating efficacy of the treatment in killing Phytophthora ramorum prior to any approval to import.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required to accompany the consignment, specifying the approved treatment has been carried out.

Option 2: Pest Free Production Site

The regulated non-propagative plant parts originate from a pest free place of production as specified in section 2.2.2.

A Phytosanitary Certificate must accompany the consignment, bearing the appropriate Additional Declaration as specified in section 2.2.2.

2.3.3 Wood Products (Including Logs, Lumber, Bark, Bark Chips, Wood Mulch, Pulpwood and Firewood) From Areas Other Than the Continental U.S.

A Permit to Import is required for the import of some wood products as specified in other policy directives (e.g. D-02-12).

All imported non-manufactured wood products are subject to the requirements contained in other CFIA policy directives including, the most recent revisions of directive D-02-12.

2.3.4 Wood Products (Including Logs, Lumber, Bark, Bark Chips, Wood Mulch, Pulpwood and Firewood) From Non-Regulated Areas of the Continental U.S.

The importation of regulated and non-regulated non-manufactured wood products from any non-regulated area of the U.S. is not restricted unless otherwise specified (please consult the Plant Protection Policy Directives page for additional information).

2.3.5 Wood Products (Including Logs, Lumber, Bark, Bark Chips, Bark Mulch, Pulpwood and Firewood) From Regulated Areas of the Continental U.S.

A Permit to Import is not required.

Untreated non-manufactured wood products of the specific plants listed in Appendix 1, originating from regulated areas are not permitted entry to Canada.

Regulated non-manufactured wood products may enter Canada provided the wood has undergone heat-treatment to achieve a minimum core temperature of 56°C for a minimum time period of 30 minutes.

A Phytosanitary Certificate specifying the treatment carried out must accompany the shipment.

Treatment and certification is not required for non-regulated plants originating from regulated areas. Other import requirements may apply (please consult the Plant Protection Policy Directives page for additional information).

2.4 Inspection Requirements

CFIA inspectors will verify that all documentation that accompanies shipments of regulated commodities meet the import requirements specified in Sections 2.1 to 2.3. Inspection staff will inspect shipments of propagative materials imported to Canada at a frequency specified in operational work plans. Examination of regulated propagative materials will include laboratory sampling of plant materials with symptoms indicative of P. ramorum. In addition, inspection staff will verify that regulated non-manufactured wood products have undergone heat-treatment at a frequency established in operational work plans.

2.5 Non-Compliance

Any material found not to comply with Canada's import requirements will be ordered removed from Canada, or disposed of. In cases where a CFIA inspector has determined that it is both practically feasible and does not constitute a biological risk to introducing a pest, the non-compliant imported wood products with bark may be treated in a manner approved by the CFIA. Any costs incurred are the responsibility of the importer.

The CFIA will advise exporting countries of any interceptions and of non-compliance with any of the conditions outlined in this directive. The discovery of quarantine pests during inspection in Canada or any other non-compliance may result in suspension of the importation program until remedial action is taken at origin.

Notifications of non-compliance will be issued in accordance with directive D-01-06: Canadian Phytosanitary Policy for the Notification of Non-compliance and Emergency Action.

3.0 Appendices

Appendix 1

List of Plants Regulated for Phytophthora ramorum (Sudden Oak Death)

Note: An importer/exporter can obtain the current list of P. ramorum (Sudden Oak Death) regulated plants from their local CFIA Office or through directive D-01-01 which can be found on the CFIA website.

Appendix 2

List of Areas Regulated for the Control of Phytophthora ramorum

Note: An importer/exporter can obtain the current list of P. ramorum (Sudden Oak Death) regulated areas from their local CFIA Office or through directive D-01-01 which can be found on the CFIA website.

Appendix 3

Requirements for Approved Pest Free Certification Programs for Regulated Areas

The following outlines the process for approval for import to Canada of propagative and non-propagative material known to be a host of Phytophthora ramorum.

A current list of regulated plants is provided in Appendix 1 of this policy document.

Countries wishing to ship host material for P. ramorum to Canada must develop a CFIA-approved pest free certification program. This program will specify the requirements for development and maintenance of a pest free production site as specified by the National Plant Protection Organization of the country wishing to export to Canada.

The pest free certification program should include measures which meet the requirements for the establishment of Pest Free Places of Production and Pest Free Production Sites described in ISPM No. 10. The CFIA will review certification programs in relation to this standard. Countries may use ISPM No. 10, Requirements for the Establishment of Pest Free Places of Production and Pest Free Production Sites for guidance in the design of the CFIA approved pest free certification program.

The program should address the following:

  • systems to establish pest freedom
  • systems to maintain pest freedom
  • systems to maintain product identity, consignment integrity and phytosanitary security during production, storage and transport
  • administrative systems to verify system compliance

The program should include at minimum:

  • mandatory laboratory confirmation of the pest free status of the facility
  • regulated propagative material presented for export to Canada must be demonstrated to have been grown, propagated, handled, held or stored only in a pest free production site under the control of a CFIA approved recognized pest free certification program.

Appendix 4

CFIA Approved Pest Free Certification Programs for Phytophthora ramorum

Note: An importer/exporter can obtain the current list of CFIA Approved Pest Free Certification Programs for Phytophthora ramorum from their local CFIA Office or through directive D-01-01 which can be found on the CFIA website.

Appendix 5

Approved Treatments for Non-Propagative Plant Parts of Regulated Plants Including Foliage, Branches and other Parts of Plants without Flowers from Regulated Areas

At this time the only treatment known to be effective is by immersing the plant parts in water and holding at a temperature of 71°C for a minimum of 1 hour. The CFIA may approve other treatments provided the importer or foreign NPPO can provide scientific information that verifies the treatment's efficacy to kill Phytophthora ramorum. Importers wishing to use alternative treatments should provide the details of treatment and any applicable scientific information regarding treatment prior to approval to import.

Appendix 6

Requirements for the Certification of Soil Accompanying Non-Regulated Plants From Regulated Areas of The U.S.

Where non-regulated plants are grown in a regulated area of the U.S., the following sampling and testing standards may be used to verify that the soil accompanying the plants is from a production site where Phytophthora ramorum is not known to occur.

  • Samples should be collected in a randomized design throughout the production area at least once in the production season or prior to planting.
  • A minimum of 25 samples per hectare should be collected to a minimum of no fewer than 60 samples per field.
  • Samples should be tested according to accepted procedures for identifying P. ramorum in soil.

Appendix 7

Summary of Import Requirements

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