D-12-01: Phytosanitary requirements to prevent the introduction of plants regulated as pests in Canada
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Effective Date: May 30, 2013
This directive outlines the general phytosanitary requirements to prevent the introduction of plants in Canada that are regulated as pests by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) under the Plant Protection Act. It does not include plants and their products regulated under other Acts and Regulations or those regulated as pathways for other plant pests.
Table of Contents
- 2.2.1 Treatment of imported plants and plant parts
- 2.2.2 Disposal of pest plants or material that could be infested with pest plants
This directive will be updated as required. For further information or clarification, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).
Chief Plant Health Officer
Amendments to this directive will be dated and distributed as outlined below.
- Directive mail list (Areas, PHRA, USDA, other federal departments)
- Provincial Government, Industry (determined by Author)
- National Industry Organizations (determined by Author)
This directive communicates the phytosanitary requirements to prevent the introduction to Canada of plants regulated as pests by the CFIA. Introduction pathways could include: plants for planting, seed, hay and straw, grain crops, crop residues, soil, machinery and equipment, handicrafts, and fresh produce. The CFIA's Invasive Plants Policy was developed in recognition of the threats pest plants pose to Canada's economy, society and environment. In keeping with this policy, plant health risk assessments provide the scientific rationale for regulating the plants included in this directive as pests. The CFIA will amend this directive in response to any changes made to the regulatory status of plants, including the associated preventative measures in place.
The CFIA requires that certain measures be taken both for import and domestic movement, to prevent the introduction or spread of plants considered to be pests in Canada. This directive indicates the conditions and restrictions applicable to those plants listed as regulated pests in Appendix 1.
This directive is intended for use by importers, retailers, nursery and greenhouse operators, the Canada Border Services Agency, the CFIA, other government departments and the public.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), 2008. RMD-08-02 (Eriochloa villosa - Woolly Cup Grass): Pest Risk Management Documents for Plant Health and Biosecurity Directorate, Ottawa.
Risk Management Documents are available upon request from: IAS.EEE@inspection.gc.ca.
International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). 2006. International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures, Publications No. 1, 2, 7, 12. Secretariat of the International Plant
Protection Convention, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO),
Directive D-98-06: Interim Import requirements of parasitic plants: Cuscuta, Striga, and Orobanche. CFIA, 1998
Invasive Plants Policy. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2011.
CFIA. D-97-04: Application, procedures, issuance and use of a permit to import under the Plant Protection Act.
Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms
Definitions for terms used in this directive can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms
1.0 Phytosanitary Requirements
1.1 Legislative authority
Plant Protection Act (1990, c. 22)
Plant Protection Regulations (SORS/95-212)
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette: Part I (as amended from time to time)
Agriculture and Agri-Food Administrative Monetary Penalties Act (S.C. 1995, c. 40)
The CFIA charges fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported product, please contact the Import Service Centre (ISC). Anyone requiring other information regarding fees may contact any local CFIA office, or visit our Fees Notice web site.
1.3 Regulated Articles
All plants and propagative parts of all species/taxa listed in Appendix 1. Plant species in and of themselves or as contaminant associated with other pathways in order to limit intentional and unintentional introduction of plants listed in Appendix 1.
1.4 Regulated areas
2.0 General Requirements
Importation and domestic movement of regulated plants and their propagative parts is prohibited. Exceptions can be granted for living material as outlined in Section 2.2.
2.2 Treatment and Disposal of Screenings
Viable and non-viable plant parts (e.g., screenings) and removed through cleaning are subject to treatment and disposal methods listed below.
2.2.1 Treatment of imported plants and plant parts
Species listed in Appendix 1 may be imported when a recognized treatment is applied to render all plants and plant parts non-viable. Note that treatment is to be done at origin and treatment certificates must accompany the shipment. When a non-compliant shipment is found to contain viable species, if feasible, treatment under a compliance agreement with the CFIA will be accepted post-entry.
An acceptable treatment method must result in devitalization. The following devitalization processes are recognized by the CFIA.
Grinding and milling
Grinding or milling consists of reducing all plant parts to crumbs or powder. The milling must be fine enough so that no intact seed or other propagable part of the regulated species remains.
Pelleting, micronizing and extruding
Pelleting consists of converting milled ingredients into granules. If the milling is not fine enough, pelleting will have to be performed at elevated temperatures in order to be recognized as an effective devitalization process by the CFIA.
Micronizing consists of exposing all plant parts to infrared rays that increase their internal temperature and to pressure that makes certain otherwise non-degradable proteins available.
Extruding consists of forcing a product to pass through a small opening, or die, using pressure. This manufacturing process is performed at an elevated temperature and under strong pressure, and can be done dry or wet.
Plants and propagable plant parts must be heated to an internal temperature of 121 degrees C for a minimum of 15 minutes to ensure weed seeds mitigation.
The CFIA may recognize and approve additional devitalization treatments on a case-by-case basis. An application describing the method's various parameters must be submitted to the CFIA for evaluation. If acceptable, these will be approved in writing.
2.2.2 Disposal of pest plants or material that could be infested with pest plants
The approved methods for disposing of material or a product infested by pest plants are as follows:
- burial to a minimum depth of one metre, as outlined in the International Waste Directive (TAHD-DSAT-IE-2002-17-4),
- any CFIA-approved processing method that devitalizes the propagative parts. This includes milling, grinding, pelleting, micronizing and extruding, as described in Section 2.2.1 of this directive.
The CFIA may approve other means of disposal on a case-by-case basis. An application describing the method's various parameters must be submitted to the CFIA for evaluation.
Movement of regulated articles and/or infested material to a disposal site must be authorized in writing by the CFIA.
3.0 Commodity-Specific Requirements
The import requirements stipulated in this Directive are specific to controlling the entry of regulated pest plants only. Additional import requirements may exist for other pests and/or commodities and these may be found by consulting the Plant Protection Directives, and the Automated Import Reference System (AIRS).
Various commodity sectors within the CFIA may have import requirements for the pathways that could be infested with pest plants. Such pathways include but are not limited to grain, seed, fresh produce, nursery stock, greenhouse plants, etc.
3.1 Importation of things that could be infested with a regulated pest plant
In order to be imported, all shipments must be free from regulated pest plants.
For example, regulated commodities must meet phytosanitary requirements and be accompanied by documentation. Such documents could include a phytosanitary certificate, analysis certificate, import permit or another document with prior approval by the CFIA. Please note that other specific commodity directives may apply.
3.2 Domestic Movement
Regulated pest plant species present in Canada are not widespread and are under official control. Movement of these species or things contaminated with such species is also subject to phytosanitary measures. These include movement certificates, restriction of use, treatment and monitoring.
Imports not meeting Canada's phytosanitary import requirements may be refused entry or movement, removed from Canada, re-routed, returned to origin, re-exported, treated or destroyed at the importer's or shipper's expense. These expenses also include, but are not limited to, costs associated with quarantine actions resulting from accidental contamination caused and any seizure, confiscation and forfeiture of shipments.
Import permits may be cancelled if an importer/shipper does not comply with the conditions of the Permit.
Notifications of non-compliance will be issued in accordance with D-01-06: Canadian Phytosanitary Policy for the Notification of Non-Compliance and Emergency Action.
5.0 Other requirements for the importation of plants and plant products
Importation of plants and plant products may also be subject to other Acts and Regulations.
Examples of CFIA Acts and Regulations:
Examples of other federal Acts and Regulations:
Canada Grain Act and Regulations,
Species at Risk Act,
Canadian Environmental Protection Act, and
Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act and Regulations,
Pest Control Products Act
It is the responsibility of the importer to adhere to those requirements as well.
Importers wishing to know more about these acts and regulations should contact the appropriate Division or Department or Agency. Information is also available on the CFIA's web site. Additionally, provinces and territories may have legislation relating to pest plants (e.g. weed acts) and should be contacted for information on that legislation.
The importation of plants and plant products with novel traits is regulated under the Plant Protection Act and guided by Directive D-96-13: Import Requirements for Plants with Novel Traits, including Transgenic Plants and their Viable Plant Parts.
Appendix 1. Regulated Pest Plants
|Scientific Name||Common Name||Synonyms|
|Aegilops cylindrica||jointed goatgrass||Aegilops tauschii,
Cylindropyrum cylindricum, and
|Alopecurus myosuroides||slender foxtail||Alopecurus agrestis|
|Arundo donax||Great Reed|
|Centaurea iberica||Iberian starthistle||Calcitrapa iberica, and
|Centaurea solstitialis||yellow starthistle||Leucantha solstitialis|
|Cuscuta spp. (except C. cephalanthi, C. coryli, C. gronovii, C. megalocarpa, C. pentagona, C. polygonorum and C. salina) Table Note *||dodder (except buttonbush dodder, hazel dodder, swamp dodder, large-fruited dodder, five-angled dodder, smartweed dodder and saltmarsh dodder)||N/A|
|Crupina vulgaris||common crupina||N/A|
|Dioscorea polystachya||Chinese yam||Dioscorea batatas,
Dioscorea cayenensis var. pseudobatatas,
Dioscorea swinhoei, and
|Echium plantagineum||Paterson's curse||N/A|
|Eriochloa villosa (under consultation)||woolly cup grass||N/A|
|Microstegium vimineum||Japanese stiltgrass||Andropogon vimineum,
Eulalia viminea var. variabilis, and
Microstegium vimineum var. imberbe
|Nassella trichotoma||serrated tussock||Stipa trichotoma|
|Orobanche spp. and Phelipanche spp. (except O. californica, O. corymbosa, O. fasciculata, O. ludoviciana, O. pinorum and O. uniflora) Table Note *||broomrape (except California broomrape, flat-topped broomrape, clustered broomrape, prairie broomrape, pine broomrape and one-flowered broomrape)||N/A|
|Paspalum dilatatum||Dallis grass||Digitaria dilatata,
Paspalum selloi, and
|Persicaria perfoliata||devil's-tail tearthumb||Ampelygonum perfoliatum,
Tracaulon perfoliatum, and
|Senecio inaequidens||South African ragwort||Senecio burchellii|
|Senecio madagascariensis||Madacascar ragwort||Senecio incognitus|
|Solanum elaeagnifolium||silverleaf nightshade||N/A|
|Striga spp. Table Note *||witchweeds||N/A|
|Zygophyllum fabago||Syrian bean-caper||Zygophyllum fabago var. brachycarpum|
- Table note *
As individual specific distinguishability allows.
This list will be amended and additional plant species will be added as pest risk analyses are completed. Notification will be given when additional plant species are listed. It is the importer's responsibility to ensure they are using the most up to date information.
In addition to the pests listed above, shipments must be free from all other pests on the "List of Pests Regulated by Canada".
Note: For a comprehensive list of pests regulated by Canada, consult the CFIA website.
- Date modified: