Technical reference R-004: Japanese Barberry Identification Manual

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Table of contents

Review

This technical reference will be updated as required. For further information or clarification, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

Endorsement

Approved by:

space for the signature of the Chief Plant Health Officer
Chief Plant Health Officer

Amendments

Amendments to this technical reference will be posted on the CFIA's website and a notification will be sent to CFIA inspectors.

1.0 Introduction

Cereals are one of the most important crops grown in Canada. The fungus Puccinia graminis Pers., which causes black stem rust, is a serious pest of cereals and can cause major crop losses. In addition to cereals and grasses, Puccinia graminis completes part of its life cycle on alternate hosts, especially barberry plants (Berberis spp.).

As a control measure, the CFIA sets restrictions on the importation and distribution of Berberis spp. in Canada, as described in directive D-01-04: Plant protection import and domestic movement requirements for barberry (Berberis, Mahoberberis and Mahonia spp.) under the Canadian Barberry Certification Program.

For Berberis thunbergii, Japanese barberry, only certain cultivars that have been demonstrated to be resistant to Puccinia graminis are approved by the CFIA for importation and sale in Canada. These approved cultivars are listed in Appendix 2 of directive D-01-04. The present technical reference provides guidance to CFIA inspectors to help identify the approved cultivars of B. thunbergii.

For more information on the CFIA's requirements for Berberis spp., refer to directive D-01-04 or contact the CFIA.

2.0 Scope

This technical reference is intended for the use of CFIA inspectors as a guide for the verification of identification of the 11 cultivars of Japanese barberry which are approved for importation and sale in Canada under directive D-01-04.

3.0 References

D-01-04: Plant protection import and domestic movement requirements for barberry (Berberis, Mahoberberis and Mahonia spp.) under the Canadian Barberry Certification Program.

4.0 Definitions and abbreviations

Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

5.0 Biology of Puccinia graminis

5.1 Life cycle

Puccinia graminis has five spore stages in its complete life cycle and includes two hosts (see Figure 1). The first two spore stages are the uredial and telial stages, which occur on cereal grains (wheat and barley) and several grasses. The uredial stage is often referred to as the repeating stage since it can continue to produce spores on wheat as long as the wheat plant is alive. Overwintering black teliospores form on the wheat when it is ripe. These then germinate, producing sporidia or basidiospores that infect barberry early in the spring. Next, the pycnial and aecial stages occur on barberry (Berberis vulgaris L., Berberis canadensis Mill. and Berberis fendleri Gray). The aeciospores infect wheat and produce urediospores.

Each spring, the urediospores infecting wheat move in a leapfrog fashion from areas in Mexico and Texas northward through the plains and into Canada. In the fall the process is reversed and a few spores manage to survive the winter in the warmer areas of Texas. Although barberry is important to the fungus in producing new races (biotypes), it is not essential for the survival of the fungus. New races may also arise from other means.

Figure 1: Life cycle of Puccinia graminis
Figure 1 - Life cycle of Puccinia graminis - Description follows
Description for Figure 1

Figure 1 shows the life cycle of Puccinia graminis, with images showing each life cycle stage. In summer, uredia form on grass from infection by aeciospores or urediospores, and there are repeating asexual cycles on the grass. In the fall, airborne urediospores (n+n) are released and telia form on grass. In winter, teliospores (n+n) form on straw, which is followed by karyogamy (2n). This is followed by meiosis, and teliospores (2n) germinate on straw, with a basidium and basidiospores (n) forming. In the spring, airborne basidiospores (n) are released and infect barberry; pycnia form on the barberry leaves. Pycniospores (n) are then transported by insects to receptive hyphae (n) of the pycnium of a different mating type, where plasmogamy occurs. Aecia (n-n) then form on barberry leaves (dikaryotization) and airborne aeciospores (n+n) are released, which begins the cycle anew.

5.2 Symptoms

On the alternate host (barberry), infection occurs from germinating teliospores from wheat. The disease appears first on the upper surface of the barberry leaf as an orange pustule; later, yellow-orange horn-like projections develop on the lower surface of the leaf. Aeciospores produced here are blown into nearby wheat fields, where the uredial stage develops.

Stem rust, as the name implies, infects but is not confined to the stems. It can infect the leaves, sheath, glumes and awns. The infection first appears on wheat as brownish red elongate pustules (lesions) producing urediospores. The urediospores are easily transported by wind and continue to reinfect wheat. In the U.S., these windblown urediospores can move hundreds of miles, infecting wheat over a large area. As the wheat plant matures, the pustules begin to produce black spores (teliospores).

6.0 Identification of barberry species and cultivars

The leaf characters are often essential in the identification of a given cultivar and species. These include the shape as a whole, as well as of the base and tip; outline of the edges; appearance of the upper and lower surfaces; and general texture. A descriptive botanical chart (Figure 2) showing these characteristics is included in this technical reference to ensure clarity of the terminology used. The shape, colour, and size of the berries and the way they are attached to the stalk are also very important in identification. The length, shape and type of the spines are also pertinent.

6.1 Common barberry (Berberis vulgaris L.)

The common barberry is a tall (approximately 2 metres, occasionally up to 3 metres tall) shrub that is very susceptible to stem rust. It has characteristic bright yellow roots and inner bark. The stems are woody. Leaves, borne in clusters, are spatulate (2.5 to 7.0 cm long) and generally blunt-tipped; the base tapers in width into a leaf stalk about one centimetre long. Leaf margins are serrated and spiny. Leaves are dull green, smooth, and some newly emerged leaves may be purplish. Spines usually are tripartite and up to 1.5 cm long; they are occasionally single or in fives. Branches are straight, strongly grooved, yellowish or sometimes yellowish red when young. Older stems (second year growth) have light grey bark. Flowers are small and yellow in colour. The berries (up to 10 mm long and 6 mm wide) are bright red and ellipsoid, and form clusters. There are one to two seeds per berry.

6.2 Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergiiDC.)

Japanese barberry is a multi-branched, upright, compact, perennial, often thorny shrub, measuring 1 to 2 m high. The shrub has numerous slender branches that may be straight or angled at the nodes. Their stem surface may be smooth or grooved, with greenish grey, purple or brown bark. Inner bark, wood and roots are of bright yellow colour. Branches have alternate, strong, slender, sharp spines (single or three-pronged) at the nodes, with short leafy shoots in their axils.

The deciduous leaves are simple, entire, borne in alternate clusters, and depending on the cultivar, may be of various shapes, sizes and colours. Leaf blades are usually obovate to oblong or spatulate, with obtuse, mucronate, or acute apexes, and are tapered towards the base. Petioles are winged.

Depending upon the cultivar, the flowers are normally produced in May or June. Numerous small flowers are borne solitary or in umbel-like drooping clusters. The flowers have a small yellow calyx and corolla (8-10 mm) and are insect pollinated.

Fruits or berries (bright red or greenish yellow colour), usually ellipsoid to globular (8-10 mm long), are borne in drooping clusters in September-October.

6.3 Glossary of botanical terms used in describing Berberis thunbergii cultivars

Figure 2: Botanical characters used in identifying Berberis thunbergii cultivars
Figure 2 - Botanical characters - Description follows
Description for Figure 2

Figure 2 shows images of: six types of leaf shape; three types of leaf margin; four types of leaf tip; one type of leaf veining; two types of spines; two types of spine shape; two types of stem surface; two types of stem shape; five types of inflorescence and berry cluster; and three types of berry shape. The text following the image provides the names and descriptions of each of these.

Leaf shapes

Ovate
Leaf egg-shaped, slightly broader near the base and narrower toward the tip; like an egg set up on its broad end.
Obovate
Leaf egg-shaped, slightly narrower near the base and broader toward the tip; like an egg set up on its narrow end.
Elliptic
Leaf oval; broadest near the middle and narrowing toward the base and tip.
Lanceolate
Leaf shaped like a spear head; broader and rounded at the base and narrowing to a point at the tip.
Oblanceolate
Leaf shaped like a spear head, as in lanceolate, but widest about 3/4 of the way to the tip.
Spatulate
Leaf shaped like a frying pan, with a long, narrow base, widening abruptly to a rounded, blunt shape.

Leaf margins

Entire
Margins smooth, without any teeth, spines or lobes.
Serrate
Margins with teeth.
Spiny Serrate
Margins with teeth with spines.

Leaf tips

Acuminate
Leaf tip sharply-pointed with a long tapering tip.
Acute
Leaf tip sharply pointed.
Obtuse
Leaf tip blunt or rounded.
Mucronate
Leaf abruptly tipped with a small, sharp spine.

Leaf veins

Reticulate
Veins forming a network.

Spine types

Single
Only one central spine at each node. There are usually minute lateral spines present that can only be seen with magnification.
Tripartite
Three spines at each node. The two lateral spines may vary in size from much shorter than the central spine to somewhat longer.

Spine shapes

Needle-shaped
Spines narrow and needle-like, although stouter at the base. The spines, even though needle-shaped, are often grooved, or the edges may be folded under.
Flattened
Spines quite broad and flat at the base, tapering toward a sharp tip. The edges are arrow-shaped folded under.

Stem surface

Terete
Stem cylindrical and round in cross-section
Grooved
Bark with shallow to deep, longitudinal grooves.

Stem shape

Straight
Stems nearly straight; not changing direction at each node.
Angular
Stems changing direction slightly at each node.

Inflorescence or berry cluster types

Fascicled
Simple cluster, with each berry on a separate stem.
Umbel-like
Simple cluster, like the above, but with the berry-bearing stems at the end of a short stem.
Simple Raceme
Simple cluster, with the berry-bearing stems arranged along a longer stem.
Fascicled-
Raceme
Compound cluster, like the above but with fascicle-like clusters of berries at each node rather than a single berry-bearing stem.
Panicle
Compound cluster, like the above but with umbel-like clusters at each node rather than fascicles.

Berry shapes

Ellipsoid
Berries with an elliptical outline.
Ovoid
Berries with an ovate outline
Subglobose
Berries nearly round.

6.4 Identification key for approved Berberis thunbergii cultivars

How to use the key:
Botanical traits are presented in the key as a series of successive statements, allowing the specimen to be identified through a process of selection and elimination. Compare the specimen to each statement, beginning with step 1. Each step offers two choices, leading either to another step or to an identification of the specimen.

Example:

  • The first character is plant width in a well-developed mature plant. If the specimen to be identified is wider than 90 cm, then go to 6 (spines).
  • If the spines are longer than 10 mm, then go to 8 (leaf shape).
  • If leaf shape of the specimen is elliptic, obovate or oblanceolate, then go to 9 (leaf apex and spine shape).
  • If the leaf apex is obtuse-mucronate and spines arrow shaped, then this specimen fits the description of barberry cultivar "Emerald Carousel". At this point, it is recommended that the specimen be compared to the full description of the cultivar.
Step
(Previous step)
Trait Go to step…/
Result
1 (0) Plant width up to 50 cm, or greater than 50, up to 90 cm 2
Plant width greater than 90 cm 6
2 (1) Spines up to 10 mm 3
Spines greater than 10 mm 5
3 (2) Spines single 4
Spines tripartite Aurea Nana
4 (3) Flowers yellow; Plant height greater than 30, up to 90 cm, or greater than 90 cm; Berry width 3 mm Jade Carousel
Flowers green; Plant height up to 30 cm; Berry width 2 mm Golden Nugget
5 (2) Leaf apex obtuse Royal Burgundy
Leaf apex obtuse-mucronate Concorde
6 (1) Spines up to 10 mm 7
Spines greater than 10 mm 8
7 (6) Leaf apex obtuse; Plant compact; Flowers greenish yellow Sunsation
Leaf apex obtuse-mucronate; Plant open or rounded; Flowers yellow Royal Cloak
8 (6) Leaf shape elliptic, or obovate, or oblanceolate 9
Leaf shape spatulate 11
9 (8) Leaf apex obtuse; Spines needle-shape 10
Leaf apex obtuse-mucronate; Spines arrow-shape Emerald Carousel
10 (9) Internode alignment straight; Leaf margins serrated; Leaves green common barberry (prohibited)
Internode alignment angled; Leaf margins entire; Leaves red Ruby Carousel
11 (8) Berries greenish yellow, or pinkish red Rose Glow
Berries bright red Cherry Bomb

Description of common barberry, Berberis vulgaris

Specimen collected at:
Banks of Ottawa River
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada in 1999

Species name: Berberis vulgaris L.
Trade name: Common barberry

Feature Description
Plant growth habit: Erect, tall with upper branches flaring out
Plant height: Up to 3 m tall
Plant width: Up to 100 cm wide
Stems and branches: Strongly grooved, straight, yellowish red young growth, gray older bark
Leaf shape (lamina): Elliptic to obovate
Leaf apex: Obtuse
Leaf margins: Serrate to spiny
Leaf size: 25-40 mm long × 15-20 mm wide
Leaf distribution: Arranged alternately in dense clusters of 5-7 small to large size leaves
Leaf colour (upper surface): Dull green with some newly emerged leaves may be purplish
Leaf colour (lower surface): Green
Leaf texture (upper surface): Smooth
Spines: Arranged alternately, tripartite, occasionally single or in fives
Spine shape: Needle shape
Spine length: Up to 15 mm long
Flowers: Yellow
Berry clusters: In clusters of 6-11 berries
Berry shape: Ellipsoid
Berry size: Up to 6 mm × 3 mm
Berry colour: Bright red

Reference no.: CB-96-04
Date: September 1999

Description of Berberis thubergii cv. "Monry" Sunsation

Year of testing: 1995
Breeder: Henry H. Eilers, H. E. Nursery

Species name: Berberis thunbergii DC.
Cultivar name: "Monry"
Trade name: Sunsation

Method of breeding: Both "Monlers" and "Monry" are siblings that were selected from a group of 50-100 seedlings about 1977. The seedlings were from an uncontrolled cross but believed to be Berberis thunbergii "Aurea" crossed with Berberis thunbergii "Kobold".

Feature Description
Plant growth habit:  Compact, dense and dwarf - a slow grower
Plant height: 90 cm to 120 cm tall
Plant width: Up to 120 cm wide
Stems and branches: Grooved, slightly angled, pale green to brown
Leaf shape (lamina): Oblanceolate
Leaf apex: Obtuse
Leaf margins: Entire
Leaf size: 10 - 16 mm long × 4 - 6 mm wide
Leaf distribution: Arranged alternately in dense clusters of 5 to 7 average size leaves in a cluster with numerous (10-15) miniature (2 -3 mm) size leaves in the cluster
Leaf colour (upper surface): Golden yellow and green leaves. New growth leaves greenish yellow, RHS colour chart code 151B. New growth leaves 151C.
 Leaf colour (lower surface): Greenish grey
Leaf texture (upper surface): Smooth
Spines: Arranged alternately, single to tripartite with two small (1-2 mm) side spines at base; approximately at 45° angle to the stem
Spine shape: Needle shape, wider and thicker towards the base, edge folded back
Spine length: Up to 6 mm long
Flowers: Greenish yellow
Berry clusters: Solitary or in clusters of 2 to 3 berries
Berry shape: Subglobose
Berry size: 2 mm × 2 mm
Berry colour: Greenish yellow

Reference no.: CB-99-09
Date: September 1999

Description of Berberis thubergii cv. Aurea Nana

Year of testing: 1996
Breeder: Unknown
Method of breeding: Unknown

Species name: Berberis thunbergii DC.
Cultivar name: Unknown
Trade Name: Aurea Nana

Feature Description
Plant growth habit: Compact
Plant height: 60 cm to 90 cm tall
Plant width: 80 cm wide
Stems and branches: Grooved, slightly angled
Leaf shape (lamina): Oblanceolate
Leaf apex: Obtuse
Leaf margins: Entire
Leaf size: 10 - 15 mm long × 6 - 9 mm wide
Leaf distribution: Arranged alternately in clusters of 3 to 6 leaves
Leaf colour (upper surface): Bright golden yellow with slight greenish tint
Turns reddish in autumn.  RHS colour chart code 13A
Leaf colour (lower surface): Dull pale green
Leaf texture (upper surface): Smooth
Spines: Alternate arrangement, usually tripartite with equally long side spines. Some single spines. Approximately at 45° angle to the stem.
Spine shape: Needle shape, slightly thicker towards base, edges folded backward
Spine length: Up to 6 mm long
Flowers: Yellow, inconspicuous
Berry clusters: Solitary or in clusters of 2 to 3 berries
Berry shape: Ellipsoid
Berry size: 4 mm × 2 mm
 Berry colour: Greenish yellow

Reference no.: CB-98-05 and CB-99-05
Date: September 1999 

Description of Berberis thubergii cv. "Monlers" Golden Nugget

Year of testing: 1991
Breeder: Henry H. Eilers
H. E. Nursery

Species name: Berberis thunbergii DC.
Cultivar name: "Monlers"
Trade Name: Golden Nugget™

Method of breeding: Both "Monlers" and "Monry" are siblings that were selected from a group of 50-100 seedlings about 1977. The seedlings were from an uncontrolled cross but believed to be Berberis thunbergii "Aurea" crossed with Berberis thunbergii "Kobold".

Feature Description
Plant growth habit: Dwarf form, very dense, compact
Plant height: Up to 30 cm tall
Plant width: Up to 45 cm wide
Stems and branches: Grooved, strongly angled, pale green to brown
Leaf shape (lamina): Oblanceolate - Spatulate
Leaf apex: Obtuse
Leaf margins: Entire
Leaf size: 13 - 20 mm long × 5 - 8 mm wide
Leaf distribution: Arranged alternately in clusters of 4 to 7 leaves
Leaf colour (upper surface): Yellow green to golden yellow leaves turning red in autumn. RHS colour chart code 151A or 153A.
Leaf colour (lower surface): Greyish green
Leaf texture (upper surface): Smooth
Spines: Arranged alternately, single; approximately at 45° angle to the stem
Spine shape: Needle shape
Spine length: Up to 6 mm long
Flowers: Green
Berry clusters: Solitary in clusters of 2 to 3 berries
Berry shape: Subglobose
Berry size: 2 mm × 2 mm
Berry colour: Greenish yellow

Reference no.: CB-99-11
Date: September 1999

Description of Berberis thubergii cv. "Monomb" Cherry Bomb

Year of testing: 1992
Breeder:

Species name: Berberis thunbergii DC.
Cultivar name: "Monomb"
Trade Name: Cherry Bomb®

Method of breeding: "Monomb" is a sport of Berberis thunbergii "Crimson Pygmy" that was selected at Monrovia Nursery.

Feature Description
Plant growth habit: Compact
Plant height: 90 cm to 120 cm tall
Plant width: 90 cm to 120 cm wide
Stems and branches: Grooved, slightly angled, brown
Leaf shape (lamina): Spatulate
Leaf apex: Obtuse
Leaf margins: Entire
Leaf size: 20 - 35 mm long × 6 - 12 mm wide
Leaf distribution: Arranged alternately in clusters of 7-10 leaves
Leaf colour (upper surface): Dark reddish purple foliage. New growth reddish purple
RHS colour chart code 183A. New growth leaves 183C.
Leaf colour (lower surface): Greyish green
Leaf texture (upper surface): Smooth
Spines: Single, arranged alternately, almost perpendicular to the stem
Spine shape: Needle shape, thicker towards base, edges folded at base
Spine length: Up to 11 mm long
Flowers: Yellow
Berry clusters: Solitary or in clusters of 2 to 4 berries
Berry shape: Ellipsoid
Berry size: 6 mm long × 3 mm wide
Berry colour: Bright red

Reference no.: CB-99-10
Date: September 1999

Description of Berberis thubergii cv. Concorde

Year of testing: 1996
Breeder: Wavecrest Nursery
Method of breeding: Unknown

Species name:  Berberis thunbergii DC.
Cultivar name: Unknown
Trade Name: Concorde

Feature Description
Plant growth habit: Dwarf, compact
Plant height: 50 cm - 60 cm tall
Plant width: 50 cm wide
Stems and branches: Grooved, strongly angled, brown
Leaf shape (lamina): Spatulate to obloncealate
Leaf apex: Obtuse mucronate
Leaf margins: Entire
Leaf size: 20 - 26 mm long × 10 - 12 mm wide
Leaf distribution: Arranged alternately in clusters of 2 to 12 leaves
Leaf colour (upper surface): Velvety red purple foliage. RHS colour chart code 187A and darker.
Leaf colour (lower surface): Greyish green
Leaf texture (upper surface): Smooth
Spines: Arranged alternately, mainly single, some with two small side spines at base; at approximately 45° angle to the stem.
Spine shape: Needle shape, edges folded back
Spine length: Up to 12 mm long
Flowers: Yellow
Berry clusters: Solitary or in clusters of 2 to 3 berries
Berry shape: Ellipsoid
Berry size: 6 mm × 3 mm
Berry colour: Bright red

Reference no.: CB-98-06
Date: September 1999

Description of Berberis thubergii cv. "Tara" Emerald Carousel

Year of testing: 1992
Breeder: Terry Schwarts of Bailey Nurseries
Method of breeding: Unknown

Species name: Berberis koreana Palib X
(Berberis thunbergii DC.)
Cultivar name: "Tara"
Trade Name: Emerald Carousel

Method of breeding: Open pollinated seedling between Berberis koreana and B. thunbergii.

Feature Description
Plant growth habit: Rounded with arching branches
Plant height: 90 cm to 110 cm tall
Plant width: Up to one meter wide
Stems and branches: Grooved, slightly angled, green to light brown
Leaf shape (lamina): Obovate
Leaf apex: Obtuse mucronate
Leaf margins: Entire
Leaf size: 20 - 26 mm long × 13 - 19 mm wide
Leaf distribution: Arranged alternately in clusters of 2 to 4 leaves
Leaf colour (upper surface): Dark green leaves with a thin golden yellow line at the margins. New growth leaves pale green. RHS colour chart code 137A and darker. New growth leaves 144A. Fall foliage turns reddish
Leaf colour (lower surface): Light green
Leaf texture (upper surface): Smooth
Spines: Alternate arrangement. Single to tripartite with dark brown tips, approximately 40° to 70° angle to the stem.
Spine shape: Flat arrow shaped, 2 to 3 mm wide at the base, thick edges folded backward
Spine length: 17 mm long × 3 mm wide at base
Flowers: Yellow
Berry clusters: Solitary or in clusters of 2 to 3 berries
Berry shape: Ellipsoid
Berry size: 6 mm × 3 mm approximately
Berry colour: Bright red

Reference no.: CB-98-02
Date: September 1999

Description of Berberis thubergii cv. "Bailgreen" Jade Carousel

Year of testing: 1996
Breeder: Donald Seliger of Bailey Nurseries

Species name: Berberis thunbergii DC.
Cultivar name: "Bailgreen"
Trade Name: Jade Carousel®

Method of breeding: Seedling selection from a population of Berberis thunbergii seedlings.

Feature Description
Plant growth habit: Compact
Plant height: 90 cm tall
Plant width: 90 cm wide
Stems and branches: Grooved, slightly angled, pale green to brown
Leaf shape (lamina): Oblanceolate
Leaf apex: Obtuse
Leaf margins: Entire
Leaf size: 10 -24 mm long × 5 - 9 mm wide
Leaf distribution: Arranged alternately in clusters of 2 to 3 leaves
Leaf colour (upper surface): Dark green. New growth leaves pale green.
RHS colour chart code 137B and darker. New growth leaves 144B.
Leaf colour (lower surface): Light green
Leaf texture (upper surface): Smooth
Spines: Alternate arrangement. Usually single with brown tips, a few with two small side spines at base; approximately 60° to 70° angle to the stem
Spine shape: Needle shape, thicker towards base, edges folded backward
Spine length: 10 mm long
Flowers: Yellow
Berry clusters: Solitary or in clusters of 2-3 berries
Berry shape: Ellipsoid
Berry size: 6 mm × 3 mm approximately
Berry colour: Bright red

Reference no.: CB-98-03
Date: September 1999

Description of Berberis thubergii cv. Rose Glow

Year of testing:
Breeder:

Species name: Berberis thunbergii DC.
Cultivar name: Unknown
Trade Name: Rose Glow

Feature Description
Plant growth habit: Rounded, compact
Plant height: Up to 140 cm tall
Plant width: Up to 130 cm wide
Stems and branches: Grooved, slightly angled, red to brown
Leaf shape (lamina): Spatulate
Leaf apex: Obtuse
Leaf margins: Entire
Leaf size: 20-28 mm long × 9-15 mm wide
Leaf distribution: Arranged alternately in clusters of 4 to 7 leaves
Leaf colour (upper surface): Red rose, and pink mottled leaves matures to variegated pinkish, purple glowing foliage in autumn.
RHS colour chart code 187A, pinkish purple mottling 185C.
Leaf colour (lower surface): Greenish grey to greyish red
Leaf texture (upper surface): Smooth
Spines: Alternate arrangement, single, approximately at a 45° angle to the stem
Spine shape: Needle shape
Spine length: Up to 12 mm long
Flowers: Yellow
Berry clusters: Solitary or in clusters of 2 to 4 berries
Berry shape: Ellipsoid
Berry size: 6 mm × 3 mm approximately
Berry colour: Pink red

Reference no.: CB-96-01
Date: September 1999

Description of Berberis thubergii cv. "Bailone" Ruby Carousel

Year of testing: 1993
Breeder: Max Lamis of Bailey Nurseries

Species name: Berberis thunbergii DC.
Cultivar name: "Bailone"
Trade Name: Ruby Carousel®

Method of breeding: Seeding selection made from Berberis thunbergii "Atropurpurea" in Oregon.

Feature Description
Plant growth habit: Low, rounded
Plant height: 90 cm to 110 cm tall
Plant width: Up to one meter wide
Stems and branches: Grooved, slightly angled, pale green to reddish brown
Leaf shape (lamina): Obovate
Leaf apex: Obtuse
Leaf margins: Entire
Leaf size: 20 - 26 mm long × 9 - 12 mm wide
Leaf distribution: Arranged alternately in clusters of 3-6 leaves
Leaf colour (upper surface): Deep purplish red. New growth leaves red.
RHS colour chart code 187A to 187B. New growth leaves 46B.
Leaf colour (lower surface): Light red to greenish red
Leaf texture (upper surface): Smooth
Spines: Arranged alternately, single; approximately at 40° to 90° angle to the stem
Spine shape: Needle shape, thicker at base
Spine length: 12 mm long
Flowers: Yellow
Berry clusters: Solitary or in clusters of 2 to 4 berries
Berry shape: Ellipsoid
Berry size: 6 mm × 3 mm approximately
Berry colour: Bright red

Reference no.: CB-98-04
Date: September 1999

Description of Berberis thubergii cv. Royal Cloak

Year of testing: 1996
Breeder: Unknown
Method of breeding: Unknown

Species name: Berberis thunbergii DC.
Cultivar name: Unknown
Trade Name: Royal Cloak

Feature Description
 Plant growth habit: Upright arching habit
Plant height: 140 cm to 170 cm tall
Plant width: 120 cm to 150 cm
Stems and branches: Grooved, slightly angled, brown
Leaf shape (lamina): Oblanceolate
Leaf apex: Obtuse mucronate
Leaf margins: Entire
Leaf size: 25 - 30 mm long × 13 - 15 mm wide
Leaf distribution: Arranged alternately in clusters of 2 to 9 leaves
Leaf colour (upper surface): Velvety dark reddish purple leaves. New growth leaves red. RHS colour chart code 187A. New growth leaves 187D.
Leaf colour (lower surface): Greenish grey
Leaf texture (upper surface): Smooth
Spines: Arranged alternately. Usually single with dark tips. Some tripartite with two small side spines; spines tend to curve downward.
Spine shape: Needle shape thicker towards base, edges folded back
Spine length: Up to 8 mm long
Flowers: Yellow
Berry clusters: Solitary or in clusters of 2 to 4 berries
Berry shape: Ellipsoid
Berry size: 6 mm × 3 mm
Berry colour: Bright red

Reference no.: CB-98-08
Date: September 1999

Description of Berberis thubergii cv. "Gentry" Royal Burgundy

Year of testing: 1996
Breeder: Leo Gentry, Gentry Nursery
Method of breeding: Unknown

Species name: Berberis thunbergii DC.
Cultivar name: "Gentry"
Trade Name: Royal Burgundy®

Feature Description
 Plant growth habit: Compact
 Plant height: 50 cm to 60 cm tall
Plant width: 50 cm wide
Stems and branches: Grooved, slightly angled, reddish brown
Leaf shape (lamina): Spatulate
Leaf apex: Obtuse
Leaf margins: Entire
Leaf size: 16 - 25 mm long × 10 - 12 mm wide
Leaf distribution: Arranged alternately in clusters of 2 to 7 leaves
Leaf colour (upper surface): Velvety burgundy purple foliage turns black red in autumn. New growth purplish red RHS colour chart code 187A. New growth leaves 187D.
Leaf colour (lower surface): Red to light greenish
Leaf texture (upper surface): Smooth
Spines: Arranged alternately, usually single, some with two small side spines at base, almost perpendicular to the stem
Spine shape: Needle shape, edges folded back
Spine length: Up to 20 mm long
Flowers: Yellow
Berry clusters: Solitary or in clusters of 2 to 4 berries
Berry shape: Ellipsoid
Berry size: 6 mm × 3 mm
Berry colour: Bright red

Reference no.: CB-98-07
Date: September 1999

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