General Principles of Food Hygiene, Composition and Labelling
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Allergen
Any substance capable of producing an abnormal immune response in sensitive individuals.
Capability
A standardized evaluation of the inherent capability of equipment to consistently perform a specified function under actual operating conditions after significant causes of variation have been eliminated.
Certification
In this document, certification refers to the guarantee a supplier (vendor) provides to a manufacturer, ensuring that the material meets the manufacturer's specifications (e.g. a Certificate of Analysis).
Control
Means that an operation performs consistently within predetermined limits based on process capability, meets process requirements, provides a mechanism to maintain the stability of the process and consistently results in a safe product.
Corrective action
The actions to be taken when the results of monitoring the critical control point indicate a loss of control. This term refers to any action taken to bring the process into control and deal with any affected product when critical limits or other criteria are not met. The action is prompt and appropriate to the seriousness of the deficiency.
Critical control point (CCP)
A point, step or procedure at which control can be applied and a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels.
Critical equipment
Equipment that performs a function, whose impact on the process is such that a food safety hazard could be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels.
Critical factor
Any property, characteristic, condition, aspect, or other parameter, a variation of which may affect the safety of the product or the process.
Critical limit
A value that separates acceptability from unacceptability. Critical limits are not control limits or specification limits. Control limits indicate what the process is capable of delivering and are tighter than specification limits which are, in turn, tighter than critical limits.
Deterioration
For food products discussed in this document, deterioration can be used interchangeably with spoilage. However, non-food products such as packaging materials can also deteriorate. For non-food items, deterioration is a physical or chemical change in the material that may adversely affect the safety of the food.
Deviation
Failure to meet the critical limits or other specified requirements for a critical factor.
Deviation procedure
A predetermined and documented set of corrective actions that are implemented when a deviation occurs. The goal is to re-establish control of the process and to control the affected product.
Documentation
For the purposes of this text, documentation refers to written formulas, procedures or specifications used by, or required of, a manufacturer.
Hazard
The potential to cause harm: a biological, chemical or physical property that may cause an unacceptable consumer health risk.
Hermetically sealed container
A container designed and intended to be secure against the entry of micro-organisms, including spores.
Incubation
Tests in which the heat-processed product is kept at a specific temperature for a specified period of time in order to determine if an outgrowth of micro-organisms or other problems occur under these conditions.
Lot
The amount of product of a specific container size, product style and code produced by a food establishment during a specified period of time.
Low acid food
A food, other than an alcoholic beverage, where any component of the food has a pH greater than 4.6 and a water activity greater than 0.85.
Monitoring
A planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether a critical control point (or other activity) is under control.
Recall: Periodic testing
Internal activities conducted on a periodic basis to verify the capability of the manufacturer to rapidly identify and control a given lot of product. These activities do not necessarily require the manufacturer to contact customers. 
Records
Observations and measurements recorded by a manufacturer to determine adherence to critical limits or other specified requirements for critical factors.
Risk
An estimate of the likelihood of occurrence of a hazard.
Spoilage
A process whereby food is rendered unacceptable through microbiological or chemical reaction.
Vendor
For the purposes of this text, vendor is equivalent to supplier.
Vendor certification
The process of acceptance of incoming materials that does not rely on 100% inspection of incoming lots. The manufacturer conducts a series of events prior to receipt of the material that ensures the material meets the required specification.
Verification
Examination of the accuracy, correctness or effectiveness of validated processes or process controls through testing, investigation or comparison against a standard.

Resources

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