Tomatoes

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  1. General Requirements
    • 1.1 Grades
    • 1.2 Similar Varietal Characteristics
    • 1.3 Sound
    • 1.4 Properly Packed and Marked
      • 1.4.1 Properly Packed
      • 1.4.2 Properly Marked
  2. Size
    • 2.1 Requirements
    • 2.2 Measuring Size
  3. Maturity and Firmness
    • 3.1 Definitions
    • 3.2 Requirements for Shipping Point
    • 3.3 Inspection at Destination
  4. Shape
  5. Cleanliness
  6. Permanent Defects
    • 6.1 Bacterial Speck
    • 6.2 Bacterial Spot
    • 6.3 Ghost Spot
    • 6.4 Ground Spot
    • 6.5 Growth Cracks
    • 6.6 Hail Damage
    • 6.7 Immature Specimens
    • 6.8 Insect Damage
    • 6.9 Puffiness
    • 6.10 Scald
    • 6.11 Scars
      • 6.11.1 Blossom End Scars
      • 6.11.2 Scars (Other than Blossom End Scars)
    • 6.12 Stem Punctures
    • 6.13 Stitching
    • 6.14 Sunburn
    • 6.15 Other Permanent Defects
  7. Condition Defects
    • 7.1 Abnormal Colouring
    • 7.2 Blotchy Ripening
    • 7.3 Chilling Damage
    • 7.4 Decay
    • 7.5 Diseases
    • 7.6 Freezing Damage
    • 7.7 Open Wet Cracks
    • 7.8 Soft Areas or Bruises
    • 7.9 Soft Specimens
    • 7.10 Sunken Discoloured Areas
    • 7.11 Water Blisters, Watery Areas and Watery Translucent Areas
    • 7.12 Other Condition Defects
  8. Tolerances
  9. Requirements for Movement of Tomatoes
    • 9.1 Interprovincial Movement
    • 9.2 Export
      • 9.2.1 General Requirements
      • 9.2.2 Certification of Field Tomatoes going to the US
    • 9.3 Import

Note: This manual has been written to cover both field and greenhouse tomatoes. Where field and greenhouse tomatoes differ in requirements, a separate paragraph will appear to cover such an instance.

Field tomatoes are tomatoes that have not been grown in artificial conditions under glass or other protective covering.

Greenhouse tomatoes are tomatoes that have been grown in artificial conditions under glass or other protective covering.

1. General Requirements

1.1 Grades

Field Tomatoes

The grades for field tomatoes are Canada No. 1 and Canada No. 2.

There is no Canadian grade for cherry tomatoes.

Greenhouse Tomatoes

The grades for greenhouse tomatoes are Canada No. 1, Canada No. 1 Extra Large, Canada Commercial and Canada No. 2.

Canada No. 1 Extra Large is the grade name for greenhouse tomatoes that have a minimum diameter of 73 mm (2 7/8 inches) but, in all other respects, comply with the requirements of Canada No. 1 grade.

Canada Commercial is the grade name for greenhouse tomatoes that:

  1. Have a minimum diameter of 63.5 mm (2 ½ inches);
  2. May be kidney-shaped, but not so creased, ridged or rough as to affect the shipping quality or seriously affect the saleability thereof;
  3. In all other respects comply with the requirements of Canada No. 1 grade.

1.2 Similar Varietal Characteristics

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

All grades (for both field and greenhouse tomatoes) require that the tomatoes have similar varietal characteristics. The colour of the skin of the firm-ripe tomato is usually the only guide to variety. Therefore "Pinks" cannot be mixed with "Reds" or "Yellows" or "Purples".

Shape is quite often variable within a variety, therefore as a general rule similar varietal characteristics do not require similar shape. The exception to this would be, when distinctly elongated types are mixed with distinctly flat or round types. For example: Regular round type tomatoes cannot be mixed with pear or plum type tomatoes.

If tomatoes of different varietal characteristics are found in the package, they will be scored as a permanent defect.

1.3 Sound

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

All grades (both field and greenhouse tomatoes) require that tomatoes be sound. This means that at the time of packing, loading or final shipping point inspection, the tomatoes are free from condition defects such as decay, breakdown, freezing injury, soft or shrivelled specimens, overripe specimens, or any other damage affecting their keeping quality.

1.4 Properly Packed and Marked

1.4.1 Properly Packed

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

The Regulations require that tomatoes be "properly packed". This means that when the tomatoes are packed in a package, they are not so packed as to be slack, over-pressed or otherwise in a condition likely to result in damage during handling or while in transit.

Slack means the package is clearly not full and a free movement of the product is possible or evident.

Over pressed or very tight means that the package is excessively filled, causing too much of a bulge in the package and damaging the produce within.

Both slack filled and Over pressed or very tight mean that the product is not in compliance with properly packed.

1.4.2 Properly Marked

All packages must be marked in accordance with the Food Labelling and Advertisement document and the Labelling Guide for Fresh Fruit and Vegetables.

2. Size

2.1 Requirements

Field Tomatoes

All Canadian grades require that tomatoes be sized.

The size requirements for field tomatoes are as follows:

Canada No. 1
  1. Have a minimum diameter of 51 mm (2 inches), and when packed in a closed package have, with the exception of 1 specimen a maximum variation in diameter of 25.4 mm (1 inch); or
  2. Have a minimum diameter of 38.1 mm (1 ½ inches) and a maximum diameter of 51 mm (2 inches) and are packed in a package on which is marked the words "Small" or 38 mm to 51 mm (1 ½ inches to 2 inches); or
  3. In the case of pear type and plum type tomatoes, have a minimum diameter of 31.8 mm (1 1/4 inches).

Note: When more than one tomato exceeds the permitted size variation, this package will be scored against the package tolerance of 10%. See Section 8 on tolerances.

Canada No. 2
  1. Have a minimum diameter of 44.5 mm (1 3/4 inches) in the case of other than pear and plum type tomatoes; or
  2. Have a minimum diameter of 31.8 mm (1 1/4 inches) in the case of pear type and plum type tomatoes.

Greenhouse Tomatoes

The size requirements for greenhouse tomatoes are as follows:

Canada No. 1
  1. Have a minimum diameter of 38.1 mm (1 1/2 inches); or
  2. Have when in a package, with the exception of (1) one specimen, a maximum variation in diameter of 25.4 mm (1 inch) in the case of tomatoes with a minimum diameter of 51 mm (2 inches) or more, and a maximum variation in diameter of 12.7 mm (½ inch) in all other cases.

When more than one tomato exceeds the permitted size variation, this package will be scored against the package tolerance of 10%. See Section 8 on tolerances.

Canada No. 1 Extra Large

Have a minimum diameter of 73 mm (2 7/8 inches).

Canada Commercial

Have a minimum diameter of 63.5 mm (2 ½ inches).

Canada No. 2

Have a minimum diameter of 38.1 mm (1 1/2 inches).

2.2 Measuring Size

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

The measurement for diameter shall be the greatest width measured at right angles to the longitudinal axis or perpendicular to a line from the stem to the blossom end.

To determine off-size specimens, inspectors shall use metal ring sizers. Suspected specimens are placed on the ring.

If the tomato supports its own weight without falling through the ring, it will:

  • be scored for oversize when checking the upper size range; and
  • not be scored for undersize when checking the lower size range.

If the tomato does not support its own weight and passes through the ring and even if it touches the sides, it will:

  • be scored for undersize when checking the lower size range; and
  • not be scored for oversize when checking the upper size range.

3. Maturity and Firmness

3.1 Definitions

The maturity and degree of ripeness of the field tomato should be judged by its development, firmness, amount and degree of colour.

The following terms indicate the stages through which the tomato passes in the ripening process:

Immature: Means that the tomato has been picked "too green" and has not reached the stage of development which will ensure the proper completion of the ripening process. They will often appear angular (have not filled out properly) and are usually dull green in colour. The tomato will be "dry and leathery" when cut and will show the formation of little, if any, jelly like substance around the seeds in the seed cavities. The seeds are also poorly developed.

Mature: Means that the tomato has been picked at the correct stage that will ensure the proper completion of the ripening process. The tomato is fully developed, well filled out and gives a feeling of springiness and pliability when pressure is applied. The seed cavities has a jelly-like consistency and the seeds are well developed. The surface is bright and waxy in appearance and has an external colour that shows at least a definite break from a green to a straw ground colour.

Turning: Means that the tomato shows a definite change in colour from a tinge of pink or various shades of red, up to 25% red colour or any combination thereof.

Semi-ripe: Means the intermediate stage of ripeness. From 25% of the surface showing tannish-yellow, pink or various shades of red or any combination thereof up to 75% of the surface showing pink or various shades of red.

Firm-ripe: Means that the tomato shows a pink or red colour covering from 75% to 100% of its surface. The tomatoes in this category must be firm, which means they may yield only slightly to moderate pressure. When testing for firmness, the inspector should exert moderate pressure at the stem and blossom ends. A few drops of juice, seed or pulp may be lost when sliced with a sharp knife.

Soft: Means the tomato will yield readily to slight pressure. These are tomatoes which are too ripe to move through normal marketing channels without considerable loss. Usually some pulp, seeds and juice are lost when the tomato is cut.

Note: Inspectors should show extreme caution when scoring specimens as being "soft", as tomatoes in this category have little or no commercial value. Do not score under soft tomatoes which have a soft area. These tomatoes will be reported as bruised or soft area tomatoes.

Soft and Watery and/or Watery Translucent Areas: Specimens in either of these categories (soft and watery and/or watery translucent areas) are to be shown as one (1) defect.

Tomatoes in these categories have a glassy translucent appearance and lose water and seeds when cut. They have no commercial value.

Decay: Means soft, mushy or leaky breakdown of the tissue, from whatever cause, and commonly known as "soft rot". Inspectors should not score tomatoes with only sunken discoloured areas as decay.

Abnormal colouring: Means tomatoes show striped, blotchy or other colour patterns that are not characteristic of normal colouring/ripening. Tomatoes that exhibit abnormal colouring cannot be accurately categorized as to a colour classification. Therefore, the total percentage of tomatoes affected by abnormal colouring + soft + soft and watery and/or watery translucent areas + decay + colour classifications should add up to approximately 100%. See section 7.1 for further clarification.

3.2 Requirements for Shipping Point

Uniform maturity within a container is very important at shipping point for both field and greenhouse tomatoes. The regulations require that all grades of field and greenhouse tomatoes within any individual package must be of the same stage of maturity: that being "mature", "turning", "semi-ripe" or "firm ripe". Tomatoes which are "immature", "soft", have "soft and watery and/or watery translucent areas", "decay" or "abnormal colouring" are scoreable with the exception to Canada No. 1 Picklers and Canada No. 2 Picklers which must be "immature".

With the exception of mature tomatoes grown in British Columbia and Manitoba, the Regulations require that 90% by count of the tomatoes within the same package to be of the same stage of maturity, the remaining 10% are of the adjacent maturity stage(s).

For mature tomatoes grown in British Columbia and Manitoba, the Regulations require that 75% by count of the tomatoes within the same package to be "mature" and the remaining 25% are of the turning stage of maturity.

Example No. 1: An individual package of tomatoes shall be graded "mature" if:

  1. in the case of tomatoes grown in British Columbia or Manitoba, not less than 75% by count of the tomatoes are "mature" and not more than 25% by count of the tomatoes are "turning";
  2. in the case of tomatoes grown in provinces other than British Columbia and Manitoba, not less than 90% by count of the tomatoes are "mature" and not more than 10% by count of the tomatoes are "turning".

Example No. 2: An individual package of tomatoes shall be graded "turning", if not less than 90% by count of the tomatoes are "turning" and not more than 10% by count of the tomatoes are "mature" or "semi-ripe".

Example No. 3: An individual package of tomatoes shall be graded "semi-ripe", if not less than 90% by count of the tomatoes are "semi-ripe" and not more than 10% by count of the tomatoes are "firm ripe" or "turning".

Example No. 4: An individual package of tomatoes shall be graded "firm ripe", if not less than 90% by count of the tomatoes are "firm ripe" and not more than 10% by count of the tomatoes are "semi-ripe".

When completing inspection certificates at shipping point, inspectors must use the outlined terms to describe maturity rather than describing the percentage of colour. When there are various degrees of maturity stages within a lot, general terms (described in the inspection manual) will be used to show the approximate quantity of each stage of maturity.

For example: mostly turning, some mature and few semi-ripe.

Tomatoes which have been classed as "mature", "turning", "semi-ripe" or "firm ripe" are examined and scored again for permanent and condition defects.

The "immature", "soft", "soft and watery and/or watery translucent areas", "decayed" and "abnormal coloured" specimens are considered to be defects and therefore are scored only once.

3.3 Inspection at Destination

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

At destination, maturity is the most important factor in assessing the commercial value of a load of tomatoes. All the terms which were previously defined to indicate the stages through which the tomato passes in the ripening process will be used in describing maturity on the inspection certificates. That is "immature", "mature", "turning", "semi-ripe", firm-ripe", "soft", "soft and watery and/or watery translucent areas", "decay" and "abnormal colouring".

The categories noted above must total 100% when completing destination inspections.

In addition, tomatoes which have been classed as "mature", "turning", "semi-ripe" or "firm ripe" are examined and scored again for condition defects or for permanent defects at applicant's request.

The "immature", "soft", "soft and watery and/or watery translucent areas", "decayed" and "abnormal coloured" specimens are considered to be defects and therefore are scored only once.

4. Shape

Field Tomatoes

The shape requirements for field tomatoes are as follows:

Canada No. 1

Tomatoes must not be noticeably ridged, angular or indented.

Canada No. 2

Tomatoes must not be so misshapen or deformed as to seriously affect their appearance.

Greenhouse Tomatoes

The shape requirements for greenhouse tomatoes are as follows:

Canada No. 1

Tomatoes must not be more than slightly kidney-shaped, lopsided, elongated, angular or not sharply creased, conspicuously ridged or rough.

Canada Commercial

Tomatoes may be kidney-shaped, but not so creased, ridged or rough as to affect the shipping quality or seriously affect the saleability thereof.

Canada No. 2

Tomatoes must be free from badly misshapen specimens.

5. Cleanliness

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

The following two terms should be used in describing cleanliness for field and greenhouse tomato grades.

Clean: All graded greenhouse tomatoes and Canada No. 1 field tomatoes must be clean. This means that the appearance of the tomatoes from the above mentioned grades are not affected by dirt, spray residue, dust and other foreign material.

This definition means that the tomato will be scored when thickly smeared foreign material, spray residue, dirt, exceeding an aggregate area of 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) in diameter or lightly smeared material affects an aggregate area of 19.1 mm (3/4 inch) in diameter.

Reasonably Clean: Canada No. 2 field tomatoes must be reasonably clean. This means that the tomato does not show amounts of dirt, dust, spray residue or other foreign material which is noticeable in contrast with the background colour.

Under this definition, foreign material, dirt and dust which is thickly smeared on the fruit, should be limited to an aggregate area not exceeding 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) in diameter, while lightly smeared specimens may be affected up to an area not exceeding 31.8 mm (1 1/4 inches) in diameter.

6. Permanent Defects

6.1 Bacterial Speck

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Bacterial speck appears on the tomato as very small, smooth black spots that are slightly raised. They are usually less than 1.59 mm (1/32 inch) in diameter.

The following requirements for field and greenhouse tomatoes must be met:

Canada No. 1

Five (5) specks are allowed per specimen.

Canada No. 2

Twenty five (25) specks are allowed per specimen.

6.2 Bacterial Spot

Bacterial spot appears on the tomato as brown to black collection of pustule scab-like areas with irregularly lobed margins. Lesions initiated long before harvest are sunken at harvest and gray or bleached, because the skin is dried and torn. The disease does not develop or spread during transit.

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Bacterial spot for field and greenhouse tomatoes is scored as follows:

Canada No. 1

When a 63.5 mm (2 ½ inch) tomato has an aggregate area of more than 9.52 mm (3/8 inch) in diameter or is cracked.

Canada No. 2

When a 63.5 mm (2 ½ inch) tomato has an aggregate area of more than 15.9 mm (5/8 inch) in diameter.

Score a smaller or larger amount on a smaller or larger sized tomato.

6.3 Ghost Spot

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

The cause of this defect is not clearly known. It is characterized by small, whitish rings on the surface of the fruit ranging from 3.17 to 6.35 mm (1/8 to 1/4 inch) in diameter.

It is an appearance factor and is scored against field and greenhouse tomatoes as follows:

Canada No. 1

If the rings affect an aggregate area of 19.1 mm (3/4 inch) and contrasts noticeably with the surface colour.

Canada No. 2

If more than 15% of the surface is affected, providing a contrast in colour that does not seriously affect the appearance.

6.4 Ground Spot

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Ground spot is found on the tomato where it has come in contact with the ground. These areas can range from whitish-tan to dark brown in colour. As the tomato ripens, these areas may become soft or breakdown.

Ground spot is scored against field and greenhouse tomatoes as follows:

Canada No. 1
  1. When the areas affected are soft or discoloured; or
  2. When the areas affected are light in colour, firm, show no evidence of secondary infection and are greater than 1/4 the diameter of the tomato.
Canada No. 2
  1. When the areas affected are soft or discoloured; or
  2. When the areas affected are light in colour, firm, show no evidence of secondary infection and are greater than ½ the diameter of the tomato.

6.5 Growth Cracks

Field Tomatoes

Growth cracks are scored in field tomatoes as follows:

Canada No. 1
  1. When the growth cracks are not well healed; or
  2. When the growth cracks are well healed but the aggregate length exceeds:
    1. 19.1 mm (3/4 inch) if the cracks are radial from the stem end; and
    2. the circumference of a circle 31.8 mm (1 1/4 inches) in diameter if the cracks are concentric around the stem end.

Note: Any growth crack that is within the above requirements but extends over the shoulder because of the size of the tomato, is to be scored.

Canada No. 2
  1. When the growth cracks are not well healed; or
  2. When the growth cracks extend over the shoulder of the tomato.

Greenhouse Tomatoes

Growth cracks in greenhouse tomatoes are scored as follows:

Canada No. 1
  1. When the growth cracks are not well healed; or
  2. When the growth cracks are well healed but the aggregate length exceeds one quarter (1/4) the diameter of an individual tomato. However, cracks which are entirely within 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) of the stem scar will not be considered.

Note: Any growth crack that is within the above requirement but extends over the shoulder of the tomato is to be scored.

Canada No. 2
  1. When the growth cracks are not well healed; or
  2. When the growth cracks are well healed but extend over the shoulder of the tomato; or
  3. When the growth cracks are well healed, but the aggregate length exceeds one half (½) the diameter of the tomato.

Note: See the diagram regarding types of growth cracks for both field and greenhouse tomatoes.

6.6 Hail Damage / Field Tomatoes

Field Tomatoes

Hail damage in field tomatoes is scored as follows:

Canada No. 1

Any visible hail marks including those that have not broken the skin.

Canada No. 2
  1. Any hail damage that has broken the skin; or
  2. Any hail damage that has not broken the skin but causes marks where the aggregate area exceeds the equivalent of the quarter of the diameter of the tomato.

6.7 Immature Tomatoes

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Means that the tomato has been picked "too green" and has not reached the stage of development which will ensure the proper completion of the ripening process. They will often appear angular (have not filled out properly) and are usually dull green in colour. The tomato will be "dry and leathery" when cut and will show the formation of little, if any, jelly like substance around the seeds in the seed cavities. The seeds are also poorly developed.

6.8 Insect Damage

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Insect damage is scored for both field and greenhouse tomatoes as follows:

No. 1
  1. Injury that exceeds two (2) well healed over stings per tomato; or
  2. Injury that is not well healed.
Canada No. 2
  • Injury that is not well healed and exceeds an area equivalent to the quarter of the diameter of the tomato in the aggregate.

6.9 Puffiness

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Puffiness is an important physiological defect in both field and greenhouse tomatoes and is more prevalent in some seasons than others. Puffiness means the tomatoes have undergone cell separation which may cause large hollow spaces within the tomato. Puffy tomatoes in most cases can be detected by lightness in weight, flattened sides, and a spongy texture.

Suspected specimens must be cut to determine if the tomato shows damage. Inspectors will make a centre cut across the tomato at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. Only specimens which clearly show the outward characteristics of being puffy will be cut.

6.10 Scald

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Sunscald for both field and greenhouse tomatoes is usually found on the sides or upper half of the tomato.

The first symptom is in the form of a whitish shiny blistered area. As the maturity advances, the affected area becomes slightly sunken and generally becomes pale yellow in colour and is often wrinkled.

This defect is reported for field and greenhouse tomatoes as follows:

Canada No. 1

Any amount of scald is scoreable.

Canada No. 2

Scald is scoreable when the appearance is seriously affected.

6.11 Scars

6.11.1 Blossom End Scars

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

These scars at the blossom end of the fruit are commonly called "catfaces".

Blossom end scars are scored for both field and greenhouse tomatoes as follows:

Canada No. 1
  1. When the scars are not reasonably smooth; or
  2. are greater in diameter than one-quarter (1/4) of the diameter of the tomato; or
  3. have more than one (1) hole; or
  4. have a hole which exceeds 3.17 mm (1/8 inch) in depth; or
  5. have holes or cracks that are wet or open.
Canada No. 2
  1. When the scars are rough or indented; or
  2. exceed five percent (5%) of the surface area of an individual tomato; or
  3. have more than two (2) holes; or
  4. have holes which individually exceed 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) in depth; or
  5. have holes or cracks that are wet or open.

6.11.2 Scars (Other than Blossom End Scars)

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

These scars are usually caused by the tomato rubbing against a part of the vine or stake during the pre-harvest period. These, also include injuries as a result of a sand blast, scuff or netting in the case of field tomatoes.

They are usually smooth and do not show any penetration. They affect the appearance but not the eating quality of the tomato.

Score against both field and greenhouse tomatoes as follows:

Canada No. 1

When it affects an aggregate area that exceeds 12.7 mm (½ inch) in diameter.

Canada No. 2

When it affects an aggregate area that exceeds 25.4 mm (1 inch) in diameter.

6.12 Stem Punctures

This defect usually occurs during the times of harvest or packing and should be reported as a permanent defect. However, it is possible that stem punctures occur during transit or unloading. If that is the case, the edge of the stem puncture will be fresh as opposed to a dry edge for a puncture that occurs before the shipping point.

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

All grades of field and greenhouse tomatoes must be free from stem punctures.

6.13 Stitching

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Stitching will be scored against both field and greenhouse tomatoes as follows:

Canada No. 1
  1. When it is rough; or
  2. when it is accompanied by holes; or
  3. when it is fine and exceeds the length of one line from the stem to the blossom end in the aggregate.

Canada No. 2

  1. When it has holes penetrating into the tomato; or
  2. when it exceeds two (2) lines from the stem to the blossom end.

6.14 Sunburn

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Sunburn is characterized by discolouration of tissue over the shoulder or upper half of the tomato. It is seldom apparent on green tomatoes. As the tomato ripens, the affected tissue turns yellow and becomes thickened or leathery. Sometimes the flesh may become affected.

Sunburn is scored against both field and greenhouse tomatoes as follows:

Canada No. 1
  1. When twenty percent (20%) of the surface has a yellow colour which contrasts with the pink or red; or
  2. when the flesh is affected.
Canada No. 2
  1. When more than twenty-five percent (25%) of the surface has a yellow colour which contrasts with the pink or red; or
  2. when the flesh is affected.

6.15 Other Permanent Defects

Any injury or defect or a combination thereof, other than an injury or defect referred to in section 6.1 to 6.14 that;

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Canada No. 1

Materially affects the appearance, edibility or shipping quality of the tomatoes.

"Materially affects" means damage in excess of one-quarter (1/4) of the diameter of the tomato providing they were not deeply indented or unhealed.

Canada No. 2

Seriously affects the appearance, edibility or shipping quality of the tomatoes.

"Seriously affects" means damage in excess of one-half (½) of the diameter of the tomato providing they were not deeply indented or unhealed.

7. Condition Defects

7.1 Abnormal Colouring

Tomatoes may show striped, blotchy or other colour patterns that are not characteristic of normal colouring/ripening. The term abnormal colouring will be used to report a number of defects of similar appearance such as virus mottling, mottling, irregular or uneven ripening and, in the case of field tomatoes, blotchy ripening. These defects often cannot be distinguished from each other with certainty. Although these defects exhibit somewhat different patterns (circular type blotches, striped or streaked areas or sections, variegated or mottled patterns from the blossom or stem end) they all affect the appearance and therefore will be reported as abnormal colouring. The terms mottling, virus mottling, irregular or uneven ripening or any other terms or descriptive words are not to be used on the inspection certificate. No other terms can be used to describe such defects except in the case of blotchy ripening of greenhouse tomatoes which is defined in the Regulations and described in Section, 7.2.

Tomatoes that are scored and reported as being affected by "abnormal colouring" will be included in the maturity classification (immature, mature green, turning, semi-ripe, firm-ripe) See Section 3. for further clarification. Therefore, the total percentage of tomatoes affected by abnormal colouring + soft + decay + colour classifications should add up to 100 percent.

Abnormal colouring does not include the following specifically named defects; Ground Spot, Ghost Spot, Scald, Sunburn or Blotchy Ripening of Greenhouse Tomatoes which are addressed in other sections of this manual.

For instructions on scoring and reporting these specific defects or conditions, see the sections pertaining to them.

Abnormal colouring is scored against both field and greenhouse tomatoes as follows;

Canada No. 1

Materially affects the appearance, edibility or shipping quality of the tomatoes.

"Materially affects" means more than 10% of the surface of the tomato shows abnormal colouring.

Canada No. 2

Seriously affects the appearance, edibility or shipping quality of the tomatoes.

"Seriously affects" means more than 25% of the surface of the tomato shows abnormal colouring.

7.2 Blotchy Ripening of Greenhouse Tomatoes

Generally, greenhouse tomatoes affected by blotchy ripening have hard, green, waxy or glossy areas appearing on the tomato which usually turn yellowish as the tomato matures. When cut, the tomato shows a browning of the inner tissues of the cell wall, this is sometimes known as grey wall or internal browning.

Care should be exercised in scoring blotchy ripening, so as not to confuse it with uneven ripening which is included in abnormal colouring. Uneven ripening has a similar yellow colour but is not accompanied by the glossy appearance or internal browning and generally will ripen properly.

Note: Blotchy ripening of field tomatoes is to be included under abnormal colouring.

In the case of greenhouse tomatoes, blotchy ripening will be scored as follows:

Canada No. 1

No blotchy ripening is allowed.

Canada No. 2

  1. Fifteen percent (15%) of the surface area of an individual tomato; or
  2. Fifteen percent (15%) of the tomatoes within the same lot.

7.3 Chilling Damage

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Chilling damage is caused by the exposure of the fruit to low but not freezing temperatures (below 10°C) for extended periods of time. The degree of ripeness of the tomato also plays a role in the amount of damage that occurs. The greener the tomato the more susceptible it is to chilling damage. Chilling is a slow process and damage is usually not apparent until the tomatoes have been warmed up for 2 or 3 days. The exposure to low temperatures weakens the fruit and upsets the ripening process or makes it more susceptible to disease, particularly Alternaria rot. Sometimes the tomatoes ripen slowly and are often blotchy and irregular, however, these are not positive indications of chilling damage as the same symptoms may be produced from other causes. The most reliable indications of chilling damage are the presence of Alternaria on a high percentage of the fruit, developing around the stem scar or as numerous lesions over the surface of the tomato.

If "chilling" is the complaint of the applicant, the tomatoes have to be inspected at the time of application for inspection and if the applicant wishes, they should be re-examined again after they have been allowed to warm up for a few days.

The change in the condition of the tomatoes will be the only indication given on the certificate. The damage will not be reported on the certificate as "chilling damage" unless the inspector is absolutely certain.

7.4 Decay

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

All Canadian grades of tomatoes require that the tomatoes be "free from" decay which includes soft, mushy or leaky breakdown of the tissue.

7.5 Diseases

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

All Canadian grades of tomatoes require that the tomatoes be "free from" diseases such as Alternaria rot, Anthracnose, blossom-end rot and early or late blight. Any amount of disease on an individual tomato is considered as a defect. However, the disease will not be reported by its specific name, rather, it will be reported as decay if it has a breakdown or by a description of the damage followed by the wording "resembling disease ... "

7.6 Freezing Damage

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Tomatoes will freeze when the pulp temperature drops below -0.8°C. Tomatoes which have been frozen usually collapse after they have thawed. Damaged tomatoes will not be shown as "Freezing Damage" unless the inspector has prior knowledge that the tomatoes have been frozen or has visible ice crystals.

Tomatoes which have thawed prior to examination will be reported in descriptive terms with special attention given to the location in vehicle and containers.

7.7 Open Wet Cracks

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

All Canadian grades of tomatoes require that tomatoes be "free from" open wet cracks. This includes any unhealed growth cracks, skin breaks, split or crushed specimens. Any amount is scoreable against all grades. However for field tomatoes this defect is scored against the three percent (3%) decay tolerance but not for greenhouse tomatoes. See Section 8 on tolerances.

7.8 Soft Areas or Bruises

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Soft areas on tomatoes are usually in the form of pressure bruises as a result of a tight pack. Mature green fruit which is not severely bruised, will usually fill out and ripen without showing any appreciable damage.

Soft areas generally have a glossy translucent appearance and yield readily to slight pressure. Soft area specimens may be found in all stages of maturity, as opposed to soft tomatoes which are found only past the ripe stage. It is important to note the soft areas and bruises on the certificate as "soft areas" and not as a "soft specimen".

Soft areas or bruises will be scored in field and greenhouse tomatoes as follows:

Canada No. 1

When the tomato is soft or discoloured.

Canada No. 2
  1. When the damaged area is discoloured to an extent greater than five percent (5%) of the surface area; or
  2. when the damaged area is soft.

Note: For field tomatoes, soft areas will be scored against the three percent (3%) decay tolerance but not for greenhouse tomatoes. See Section 8 on tolerances.

7.9 Soft Specimens

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Soft means the tomato will yield readily to slight pressure. These are tomatoes which are too ripe to move through normal marketing channels without considerable loss. Usually some pulp, seeds and juice are lost when the tomato is cut.

For more information on how to score soft specimens, please refer to Section 3 of this manual.

All grades of tomatoes require that the tomatoes be free from soft specimens.

7.10 Sunken Discoloured Areas

These are areas of the tomato which are both sunken and discoloured. Discoloured is defined as any abnormal darkening of the skin that is noticeably in contrast with the normal colour of the surrounding area. It usually results from scuffing skin abrasions or skin breaks.

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Score for both field and greenhouse tomatoes when the affected aggregate area exceeds:

Canada No. 1

9.52 mm (3/8 inch) in diameter.

Canada No. 2

12.7 mm (½ inch) in diameter.

7.11 Water Blisters, Watery Areas and Watery Translucent Areas

Tomatoes in this category have a glassy translucent appearance and lose water and seeds when cut. All Canadian grades of field tomatoes require that the tomatoes be free from water blisters, watery areas or watery translucent areas. For field tomatoes, these defects are scored against the three percent (3%) decay tolerance but not for greenhouse tomatoes. See section 8 on tolerances.

7.12 Other Condition Defects

Any injury or defect or a combination thereof, other than an injury or defect referred to in Section 7.1 to 7.10.

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Canada No. 1

Materially affects the appearance, edibility or shipping quality of the tomatoes.

"Materially affects" means damage in excess of one-quarter (1/4) of the diameter of the tomato providing they were not deeply indented or unhealed.

Canada No. 2

Seriously affects the appearance, edibility or shipping quality of the tomatoes.

"Seriously affects" means damage in excess of one-half (½) of the diameter of the tomato providing they were not deeply indented or unhealed.

8. Tolerances

Field Tomatoes

Notwithstanding anything in these Regulations in the grading of field tomatoes, the grade standard for a grade shall still be met if not more than:

  1. 10% of the tomatoes by count have defects of which not more than:
    • 3% may be soft areas, water blisters, open wet cracks or decay, and
    • 5% may be the same grade defect, and in addition;
  2. 5% of the tomatoes by count are below the minimum size specified in Section 2.1 of this manual;
  3. 5% of the tomatoes by count exceed the maximum size specified in Section 2.1 of this manual;
  4. 10% of the packages, when the field tomatoes are in packages, may contain field tomatoes that exceed the permitted size variation.

Note: It is important to remember that Canada No. 1 Picklers and Canada No. 2 Picklers are grade names for immature field tomatoes that in all other respects comply with the above requirements of Canada No. 1 and Canada No. 2 grades respectively.

Greenhouse Tomatoes

Notwithstanding anything in these Regulations in the grading of greenhouse tomatoes, the grade standard for a grade shall still be met if not more than:

  1. Five percent (5%) of the tomatoes by count have grade defects of which not more than one percent (1%) may be decay; and in addition
  2. Five percent (5%) of the tomatoes by count are below the minimum sizes specified in Section 2.1 of this manual;
  3. Ten percent (10%) of the packages, when greenhouse tomatoes are in packages, may contain greenhouse tomatoes that exceed the permitted size variation; and
  4. Ten percent (10%) of the packages containing greenhouse tomatoes of Canada Commercial grade may contain tomatoes that do not meet the standards for shape of Canada Commercial grade.

9. Requirements for Movement of Tomatoes

9.1 Interprovincial Movement

Field and Greenhouse Tomatoes

Field and greenhouse tomatoes shall not be sent or conveyed from one province to another unless they are packed or marked properly and meet one of the following grades: Canada No. 1 or Canada No. 2 for field tomatoes and Canada No.1, Canada No. 1 Extra Large, Canada Commercial or Canada No. 2 for greenhouse tomatoes.

Tomatoes not meeting the above requirements or moving in bulk, shall not move interprovincially except if a Ministerial Exemption has been granted by the Minister or a delegate of the Minister.

9.2 Export

9.2.1 General Requirements

Field Tomatoes

Field tomatoes being exported to the United States must meet the requirements of one of the following grades: Canada No. 1 or Canada No 2.

Greenhouse Tomatoes

Greenhouse tomatoes being exported to the United States or other countries must comply with the requirements of the destination country.

9.2.2 Certification of Field Tomatoes Going to the US

Our agreement with the USDA gives us the authority to certify field tomatoes under their "Marketing Order" as meeting their US Import Requirements. This Marketing Order is for tomatoes other than pear-shaped, cherry, hydroponic and greenhouse. To meet this agreement, our staff must certify tomatoes according to their size requirement and our staff must see the load going into the vehicle. Only in the instance where a lot may be positively identified in a warehouse, could a warehouse inspection be performed. The inspection must be made on an identifiable lot. In each case the inspector must be sure the identity of such lots will not be lost before loading and subsequent shipment. The inspector must, however, endeavour to see the vehicle that the produce will ultimately be loaded into and record its identification number or at least obtain from the applicant the proper identification number of the vehicle. This information is to be recorded under the "Remarks" heading of the certificate "and be shipped via trailer license number".

Note: Under no circumstances are warehouse inspections to be performed on produce being shipped to the us where individual lots cannot be distinguished from another at time of inspection.

Regarding the size requirements, inspectors must consult the current US Marketing Orders on tomatoes.

To conform with the agreement, the following information must appear on the certificate or on the evidence of inspection:

  1. The date and place of inspection.
  2. The name of the shipper or applicant.
  3. The quantity of the tomatoes covered by the certificate.
  4. The principal identifying marks on the container.
  5. The railroad car initials and number, the trailer license number, the name of the vessel, or other identification of the shipping vehicle.
  6. The following statement must also be shown under the "Certification" heading:
    "Meets requirements of the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Regulations and Meets the US Import Requirements of 7 U.S.C. 608 e-1."

9.3 Import

Field Tomatoes

Field tomatoes imported must meet the requirements of one of the following grades: Canada No. 1. or Canada No. 2.

Greenhouse Tomatoes

Greenhouse tomatoes being imported must meet the requirements of one of the following grades: Canada No. 1, Canada No. 1 Extra Large, Canada Commercial or Canada No. 2.

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