Carrots

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  1. General Requirements
    • 1.1 Grades
    • 1.2 Similar Varietal Characteristics
  2. Size
  3. Maturity and firmness
  4. Shape and forked specimens
  5. Colour and cleanliness
  6. Permanent defects
    • 6.1 Broken specimens
    • 6.2 Crown damage
    • 6.3 Growth cracks
    • 6.4 Injury from mechanical or other sources
    • 6.5 Insect injury
    • 6.6 Seedstems
    • 6.7 Sunburn
    • 6.8 Trimming
    • 6.9 Wart-like growth
    • 6.10 Other permanent defects
  7. Condition defects
    • 7.1 Decay
    • 7.2 Discolouration
    • 7.3 Freezing injury
    • 7.4 Secondary top growth
    • 7.5 Split specimens
    • 7.6 Other condition defects
  8. Tolerances
    • 8.1 Shipping point tolerances
    • 8.2 Destination tolerances
  9. Requirements for movement of carrots
    • 9.1 Interprovincial movement
    • 9.2 Exportation
    • 9.3 Importation

1. General Requirements

1.1 Grade

  • The grades for carrots are Canada No 1, Canada No 1 - Cut Crowns and Canada No 2. These grades do not apply to carrots which their tops have not been removed.
  • Canada No 1 cut crowns have their crown or shoulders removed but which in all other respects meet the requirements of Canada No 1.

1.2 Similar Varietal Characteristics

  • Canada No 1 carrots are required to have similar varietal characteristics, that is to say, short, long or top shaped types may not be mixed.
  • Canada No 2 carrots need only be of the same general type.

2. Size

Canada No 1
Carrots must have:

  • a minimum length of 4-1/2 inches (114.5 mm);
  • if marked with a maximum and minimum diameter, a maximum and minimum diameter to comply with the markings, but in no case may the marked minimum diameter be less than 3/4 of an inch (19.1 mm);
  • a minimum diameter of 1-1/2 inches (38.1 mm) or greater if packed in a package marked with the words 1-1/2 inches (38.1 mm) and up, or as the case may be.
  • a minimum diameter of 3/4 of an inch (19.1 mm) if packed in a transparent package or in a bulk display in a retail store;
  • a minimum diameter of 1 inch (25.4 mm) and a maximum diameter of 1-3/4 inches (44.5 mm) in all other cases.

Canada No 2
Carrots must have a minimum diameter of 3/4 of an inch (19.1 mm) and a minimum length of 4-1/2 inches (114.5 mm).

Note: It must be remembered that mesh bags are not considered to be transparent.

See also requirements for export and import in Sections 9.1 and 9.2.

3. Maturity and Firmness

There is no maturity requirement for either grade, but size, firmness and woody characteristics could be considered as part of the age or aging of the carrot.

Carrots may not be soft, flabby, shrivelled or woody.

Canada No 1
Carrots must be firm, that is solid and unyielding to the touch; not wilted.

Canada No 2
Carrots do not need to be firm, but may not be soft, flabby or shrivelled.

4. Shape and Forked Specimens

Canada No 1
Carrots may not be rough, materially misshapen or materially affected by secondary rootlets. This means that specimens which are ridged, grooved or lumpy from secondary growth so as to materially affect appearance, or causes waste in preparation are scoreable. Specimens may have a slight smooth curve or may be gently curved two ways in the same plane - but sharp curves, double corkscrew like twists and curves with constrictions are scoreable. Any forked carrot is scoreable.

Canada No 2
Carrots may not be seriously deformed.
This means that:

  • may be slightly forked, that is the forking is not longer than 1 inch (25.4 mm). Broken off forks would make the carrot a cull;
  • the carrot is curved, but not so badly so that there is a constriction which would cause a loss of more than 10% by weight;
  • that the specimen is not so badly corkscrew shaped, lumpy or ridged that the appearance is seriously affected.

On the detail sheet, score misshapen and forked specimens under two different headings.

5. Colour and Cleanliness

There is no colour requirement as such for carrots, however:

Canada No 1
Carrots must be reasonably clean.

Reasonably clean: means that the individual specimen is Practically free from caked dirt, mould or decayed matter and does not have more than 15% of the surface in the aggregate covered by staining or clinging dirt. Practically free means 5% of the surface in the aggregate.

Canada No 2
The appearance or saleability may not be seriously affected by dirt. Seriously affected means that not more than 50% of the surface is affected by staining or clinging dirt and not more than 25% is caked dirt.

Washed: The word washed may be used in connection with either grade of carrots if prior to being packed the carrots have been washed and are clean. Clean means there is no visible caked dirt.

Cleanliness will be shown on the certificate under the Colour heading; for example Characteristic, washed, clean; Characteristic, generally reasonably clean or Characteristic, mostly clean, some dirty. The percentage that are not reasonably clean or seriously affected by dirt will be shown under the Grade Defect heading if the lot fails and a certificate is issued.

6. Permanent Defects

6.1 Broken Specimens

Canada No 1
Broken specimens are scoreable when they:

  • alter the general shape of the specimens, or
  • have a cut or break which is rough, jagged, or badly discoloured, or
  • are less than 6 inches (152.4 mm) in length and have a tip diameter greater than 1/2 the diameter of the carrot.

Canada No 2
The carrots must be 4 1/2 inches (114.5 mm) in length provided the break is smooth, clean and not badly discoloured.

The inspector should remember that if he/she finds a broken piece longer than 4 1/2 inches (114.5 mm) and without the crown, this piece will be scored as a broken specimen.

Note: At destination, if pieces are found in the package, the broken specimens will be scored as condition and not scored as permanent.

6.2 Crown Damage

Mechanical harvesters at times do considerable damage to the crown and shoulder areas of the carrots. Since it is felt that the consumer will trim a portion of the crown and shoulder area during preparation, score when the following is found:

Canada No 1
Any damage that:

  • is rough, jagged or badly discoloured or
  • is not well healed, or
  • extends more than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) below the crown, or
  • affects an aggregate area exceeding 2/3 of the diameter.

Note: The crown refers to the area where the top of the carrot seems to turn down on the shoulder.

Canada No 2
This grade may have crown damage to the extent that the appearance or saleability is not seriously affected. This will be judged by permitting to a greater degree the amount allowed in Canada No 1.

6.3 Growth Cracks

Canada No 1
Score in the same manner as splits, but if the crack is smooth and shallow and does not materially affect appearance don't score. (See section 7.5)

Canada No 2
Score only if the carrot has several cracks which in the aggregate would be longer than 3/4 the length of the specimen, or if the crack is more than half the length, or so deep and wide that the appearance or saleability is affected.

6.4 Injury from Mechanical or other sources

Would include cuts, bruises, etc., to other than the crown or shoulder area of the carrot.

Canada No 1
Score when:

  • the damage is more than 3/16 of an inch (4.76 mm) in depth, or
  • is noticeably discoloured, or
  • affects an aggregate area exceeding one half the diameter of the carrot.

Canada No 2
Score any injury which wastes more than 10% of the carrot.

6.5 Insect Injury

This will normally be caused by wire worm or slug damage.

Canada No 1
Score when damage causes more than 5% waste by weight, or if the appearance is materially affected even though the 5% waste factor is not reached.

A discolouration accompanying the injury could be scored on the appearance. When the discolouration is dark tan or black then the carrot should be scored. If the discolouration is tan in colour, the carrot will be scored on the amount of cut-off.

Canada No 2
Score when more than 10% waste is caused, or when the appearance is seriously affected even though the 10% waste factor cannot be reached.

6.6 Seedstems

Score any visible seedstems in both grades.

6.7 Sunburn

Canada No 1

  • score when the sunburn extends more than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in the aggregate below the outer edge of the crown. This means if the greening is at an angle and extends down about 3/4 of an inch (19.1 mm)on one side and about 1/4 of an inch (6.35 mm) on the other it would not be scored, or
  • affects more than 10% of the carrots in a lot if the sunburn extends below the outer edge of the crown, but by not more than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm)

Note: - Specimens scored under:

  • are considered under the general tolerances.
  • are scored against the 10% special tolerances.

Sunburn which affects the crown only and does not extend below the outer edge of the crown is not scoreable.

Canada No 2
All specimens may have sunburn up to 1 inch (25.4 mm) below the outer edge of the crown.

6.8 Trimming

Carrots must be properly trimmed.

Canada No 1

  • are not trimmed into the crown,
  • the length of the top does not exceed 1 inch (25.4 mm), and
  • the length of the tops of 75% of the carrots in the lot does not exceed 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). If this special tolerance is exceeded, the lot must be detained.

Note: Carrots trimmed into the crown and carrot tops which exceed 1 inch (25.4 mm) will be scored against the general tolerance.

Canada No 2

  • are not trimmed into the crown
  • are trimmed so that tops do not exceed 1 inch (25.4 mm) in length.

6.9 Wart-Like Growth

This injury has a dark colour, wart-like appearance.

Canada No 1
The carrots must be free from this defect.

Canada No 2
A maximum of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in aggregate is allowed.

6.10 Other Permanent Defects

Score any injury or defect or a combination thereof, other than an injury or defect referred to in section 6.1 to 6.9 that

Canada No 1

  • materially affects the appearance, edibility, or shipping quality, or
  • cannot be removed without a waste of more than 5% by weight.

Canada No 2

  • seriously affects their appearance, edibility or shipping quality, or
  • cannot be removed with a loss of 10% of the total weight of the carrot.

7. Condition Defects

7.1 Decay

Decay means any soft, mushy breakdown. Leaky breakdown from freezing injury is also scored under the decay tolerance. Any amount is scoreable in both grades.

7.2 Discolouration

At times carrots will become discoloured, that is a brownish discolouration or a bronzing which is noticeably in contrast with the natural carrot colour or appear discoloured as a result of many dark, close, clinging rootlets. In all cases score the same as staining for both grades. (see section 5)

7.3 Freezing Injury

Carrots may be frozen with ice crystals in evidence, yet may thaw without any visible damage. If there is damage it could result in the carrots becoming split, flabby, watersoaked in appearance, or showing fine radial cracks or even a watery breakdown.

Assess the damage after complete thawing. If ice crystals were present at time of initial inspection note this under Remarks on the certificate. For example - On January 20, 1974 temperatures taken and samples set aside to allow freezing damage to become more evident. Ice crystals noted in most specimens in all bags.

If ice crystals are not noted during initial inspection no reference should be made to the damage being caused by freezing.

7.4 Secondary Top Growth

This will include new top growth often found on carrots that have been stored. In both grades score the same as trimming (see section 6.8)

7.5 Split Specimens

Canada No 1
Any fresh splits should be scored that are:

  • not clean;
  • more than 1/3 the length of the carrot in aggregate;
  • over 1/8 inch (3.17 mm) in width or over 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) in depth.

Canada No 2
Score any that are:

  • not clean, or
  • more than one half the length of the carrot, or
  • so wide and deep as to seriously affect appearance, or
  • several cracks which in the aggregate are more than 2/3 the length of the carrot.

7.6 Other Condition Defects

Score any injury or defect or a combination thereof other than an injury or defect referred to in section 7.1 to 7.5 that:

Canada No 1

  • materially affects the appearance, edibility, or shipping quality, or
  • cannot be removed without a waste of more than 5% by weight.

Canada No 2

  • seriously affects their appearance, edibility or shipping quality, or
  • cannot be removed without a loss of 10% of the total weight of the carrot.

8. Tolerances

8.1 Shipping Point Tolerances

The standards are considered to be met in the case of a lot of carrots when up to:

Ten Percent (10%) of the weight of the carrots in the lot have defects, including not more than:

  1. Undersize 4%
  2. Oversize 8%
  3. Same permanent or condition defect other than those contained in paragraphs a) or b) 5%
  4. Decay 2%

8.2 Destination Tolerances

The standards are considered to be met in the case of a lot of carrots when up to:

Fifteen Percent (15%) of the weight of the carrots in the lot have defects, including not more than:

  1. Undersize 4%
  2. Oversize 8%
  3. Same permanent defect 5%
  4. All permanent defects, including those contained in paragraphs a), b) and c) 10%
  5. Same condition defect 10%
  6. Decay 4%

9. Requirements for Movement of Carrots

9.1 Interprovincial Movement

Carrots shall not be sent or conveyed from one province to another unless they are packed or marked properly and meet one of the following grades: Canada No 1, Canada No 1 - Cut Crown and Canada No 2.

For carrots below the above requirements or moving in bulk shall not move interprovincially except if a Ministerial Exemption has been granted by the Minister or a delegate of the Minister.

9.2 Exportation

Carrots being exported outside of the country must meet the requirements of one of the following grades: Canada No 1, Canada No 1 - Cut Crown and Canada No 2.

It is also important to note that no carrots other than mini, packed as prepackaged products, shall be exported from Canada unless within the size range of 3/4 inch minimum to 1-3/4 inch maximum (19.1 to 44.5 mm) in diameter. Prepackaged products means bags of 2, 3 and 5 lb. sizes.

These requirements are for properly packed carrots going for the fresh market. Carrots in bulk for repacking or for processing or not meeting the above requirements are subject to a Ministerial Exemption granted by the Minister or a delegate of the Minister. In such instances, the foreign consignee is required to give us a written confirmation of the transaction. The confirmation could take the form of a telex, a facsimile letter on company letterhead or an original letter.

9.3 Importation

Carrots being imported must meet the requirements of one of the following grades: Canada No 1, Canada No 1 - Cut Crown and Canada No 2.

Also carrots other than Baby, Mini, Finger or Cocktail carrots must have a minimum diameter of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) and a minimum length of 4-1/2 inches (114.5 mm) to be imported.

Again, these requirements are those for properly packed carrots going for the fresh market. Carrots in bulk for repacking or for processing or not meeting the above requirements are subject to a Ministerial Exemption granted by the Minister or a delegate of the Minister.

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