Introduction - Regulation of Livestock Feed in Canada
The manufacture, sale and import of livestock feeds are regulated in Canada under the Feeds Act and Regulations administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). All feeds must be safe to livestock; to humans (by the potential transfer of residues into human food, i.e., meat, milk and eggs, and via worker/bystander exposure); and to the environment.
Feeds must also be shown to be effective for their intended purpose. Approved feed ingredients are listed and defined in Schedules IV and V of the Feeds Regulations, with appropriate guarantees, standards and labelling requirements. All imported feeds must meet the same standards as domestic feeds.
Both industry and government share the responsibility for safe and effective feeds, and ultimately our food. The CFIA uses a number of tools, including consultation, publication of information (e.g., the CFIA website), awareness campaigns, inspection activities and other initiatives to inform regulated parties of the requirements. Regulated parties must make themselves aware of the regulatory requirements with which they need to comply.
Under the authority of the Feeds Act and Regulations and the Health of Animals Act and Regulations, the CFIA administers a national feed program. There are two key components – mandatory pre-market assessment and the National Feed Inspection Program.
This document (the RG-1) is intended to help you determine whether your feed is subject to the requirements of the Feeds Act and Regulations, as well as to assist you in preparing and submitting an application for pre-market assessment for feed ingredient approval and/or feed product registration. Specific chapters of the RG-1 provide more detailed information on requirements for specific categories of feeds and feed ingredients.
The legislative authorities under which the CFIA regulates feeds include the following:
For the regulation of feeds and feed labelling:
Health of Animals Act
Health of Animals Regulations
Organic Products Regulations
For the collection of fees:
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice
Part XIV of the Health of Animals Regulations contains several regulatory measures associated with the production of animal food (feed containing an animal product or by-product) and the feeding of livestock. This includes a prohibition on feeding ("feed ban") of most proteins derived from ruminants (defined as "prohibited material") to ruminant animals, such as cattle, sheep, goats and deer. It also includes requirements for anyone who manufactures, imports, packages, stores, distributes, sells, or advertises for sale animal food for ruminants (and other animal species as specified in section 171.(1) of the Regulations) to keep records (for 10 years) that contain the lot number and any other information used to identify each lot of animal food.
Under the Canada Organic Regime, the Organic Products Regulations define specific requirements for products labelled as organic, including livestock feeds, or that bear the approved organic agricultural product legend (logo), and are sold inter-provincially or are imported.
Please note that other regulations, administered either by the CFIA or another department or agency of the Government of Canada, may also apply, depending on the type of feed or ingredient for example the Food and Drugs Act and Regulations and Pest Control Products Act and Regulations.
Regulation of livestock feeds
"Feed" is defined under section 2 of the Feeds Act as:
"… any substance or mixture of substances containing amino acids, anti-oxidants, carbohydrates, condiments, enzymes, fats, minerals, non-protein nitrogen products, proteins or vitamins, or pelletizing, colouring, foaming or flavouring agents and any other substance manufactured, sold or represented for use
- for consumption by livestock,
- for providing the nutritional requirements of livestock, or
- for the purpose of preventing or correcting nutritional disorders of livestock,
or any substance for use in any such substance or mixture of substances".
Feeds for the following species of livestock are currently regulated under the Feeds Act and Regulations: cattle, horses, sheep, goats, swine, poultry (chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese), fish, foxes, mink, and rabbits.
Feeds for other species are exempt from the Feeds Act and Regulations. However, they may still be subject to import or export requirements under other authorities administered by the CFIA.
- Information on the importation of commodities regulated by the CFIA is available from the Automated Import Reference System (AIRS).
- For further information relating to imports or exports of these products, please contact the Centre of Administration (CoA). The CoA is responsible for carrying out administrative tasks related to granting permissions (licenses, permits and registrations) for commercial operators and for travelers.
Products that are administered to livestock through either feed or water for therapeutic purposes may be considered as veterinary drugs, which are subject to the Foods and Drugs Act and Regulations, administered by the Veterinary Drugs Directorate of Health Canada. More information on the classification of feeds and veterinary drugs is available in a guidance document posted on the Health Canada website.
Single Ingredient Feeds (SIF)
A "Single Ingredient Feed" is defined in the Feeds Regulations as "any substance or mixture of substances that is assessed or evaluated as being acceptable for use in feeds and that is described in an item of Schedule IV or V". Single ingredient feeds are typically referred to as "ingredients".
In line with the definition and purpose of a feed, Schedules IV and V are subdivided into two parts (Parts I and II). Parts I and II of Schedule IV are further divided into eight classes of feeds indicating the intended purpose of the ingredient. Schedule V, both Parts I and II, is a listing of all ingredients which may be used as flavouring ingredients only.
- Schedule IV Part I SIF
Ingredients listed in Part I are considered to have been approved for safety and efficacy and are exempt from registration and may be imported, sold and used freely in Canada, provided they conform with the ingredient description, meet the standards as defined, and are labelled as prescribed in the Schedule.
Part I ingredients may not have extra label guarantees or claims. Ingredients with extra label guarantees or claims that are not prescribed in the Feeds Regulations would require pre-market assessment and approval.
- Schedule IV Part II SIF
Part II ingredients are not exempt from registration. As there may be inherent safety and/or efficacy variations associated with an individual source of the ingredient, or introduced via the manufacturing process, a pre-market assessment is required. Each source of these ingredients must, therefore, be registered with information/data to support the safety and/or efficacy of the product.
Ingredients which are not listed in Schedule IV or V require a full safety and efficacy assessment. If an ingredient is already used in another country, a full assessment is still required; however the AFD does accept data that has been used to support ingredient approval in other jurisdictions.
In addition, proponents can apply to have an approved ingredient assessed for a different purpose. This requires a new safety and/or efficacy assessment(s). A change in the use of an ingredient can impact the amount being fed, possibly affecting the safety and/or the efficacy of the ingredient.
It should be noted that although an ingredient may be listed within Schedule IV or V, other regulatory authorities respecting either animal or plant health, may prohibit or place additional conditions on the importation of livestock feed ingredients. Additional information on the importation of commodities regulated by the CFIA is available from the Automated Import Reference System (AIRS).
For further information relating to imports or exports of these products, please contact the Centre of Administration (CoA).
To request a copy of the most recent version of Schedules IV and V, please send an e-mail with the subject line "Schedules IV and V" to the Animal Feed Division (AFD) at: AFD_DAA@inspection.gc.ca.
Ingredients may be fed solely to livestock, however they are typically mixed together to manufacture various types of mixed feeds. A mixed feed is a feed that contains two or more single ingredient feeds. All mixed feeds must only be manufactured using ingredients that have been approved for use and listed in Schedules IV and V.
Standard vs Specialty Feed
Many mixed feeds (e.g., premixes and supplements) may be used in the manufacture of complete feeds or rations; however, these are considered "standard feed". Some mixed feed may be dilutions of ingredients (on carriers) or combinations of miscellaneous ingredients (such as those listed in Class 8 of Part I and II of Schedule IV and of Schedule V) with the intent of acting as an additive or a providing a specific function. The AFD refers to these products as "specialty feed" and are similar to the "feed additive" terms used by the European Union. Examples of some "specialty feed" categories include:
- buffer feeds,
- enzyme supplements,
- flavouring agents,
- mould inhibitors,
- odour control agents,
- pellet binders,
- feed and animal product colouring/pigment agents,
- viable microbial products and
- yeast cell wall products.
- anti-caking agents
The Feeds Act and Regulations currently provide authority to the CFIA for pre-market assessment, which consists of two elements: assessment of new ingredients for approval/authorization, and product registration.
The CFIA evaluates and regulates all feed ingredients in the same manner. Any feed ingredient that is new (i.e., not already listed in Schedules IV and V of the Feeds Regulations), or has been modified such that it differs significantly from a conventional ingredient such as composition, manufacturing process, and/or use, is required to undergo a pre-market assessment and approval.
The purpose of all feed assessments is the same: to verify that the feed ingredient is safe (in terms of animal health, human health via food residues and worker/by-stander exposure, and the environment) and effective for its intended purpose prior to marketing.
A risk assessment framework is a key component of the safety and efficacy assessment. Following a positive assessment, the review also ensures that the feed is accurately defined in the Feeds Regulations so that they are labelled appropriately for safe and effective use and for consumer protection.
The specific requirements for a safety and efficacy assessment of a feed ingredient are dependent on the nature of the feed in question. Data requirements are tailored to familiarity, purpose and complexity of the product. The CFIA provides guidance to stakeholders on how to meet the data requirements for the assessment process through workshops, one-on-one consultations and the publication of guidance documents, including this document (RG -1, Regulatory Guidance: Feed Registration Procedures and Labelling Standards).
Once a new ingredient has been evaluated and found to be safe and effective as a feed, it is listed in either Part I or Part II of Schedule IV or V under the Class that corresponds to the purpose of the ingredient and risk. Part II SIFs are assigned a proprietary registration number.
Ingredients listed in Part I of either schedule are exempt from registration; provided that they meet the standards for composition described in the ingredient definition, meet the standards as defined, and are labelled appropriately. Ingredients with additional label guarantees, claims, or with languages other than English or French are, however, subject to registration. Ingredients that are listed in Part II of either schedule must be registered separately by the CFIA for each source. Each source of the ingredient that is listed in part II of Schedule IV or V must be registered by the CFIA.
Many complete feeds, supplements and macro premixes are exempt from registration provided that they comply with all standards and labelling requirements set out in the Feeds Regulations.
Specialty feeds, as described above, must be registered. Similarly to Schedule IV, Part II ingredients, the specific requirements for an efficacy and/or safety assessment for specialty feeds are dependent on the category in question, and guidance on how to meet the data requirements for the assessment process is provided in Chapter 3 of the RG-1.
Feeds Requiring Registration: Do I Need to Register my Product?
You will need to register your livestock feed if:
- you are importing a single ingredient feed into Canada, and it is not a single ingredient feed listed in Schedule IV, Part 1 of the Feeds Regulations;
- you are importing into Canada a single ingredient feed listed in Schedule IV, Part 1, that has additional label guarantees or claims, or is labelled with languages other than English or French (see Chapter 4, section 4.11, for more information);
- you are manufacturing or importing a single ingredient feed listed in Part II of Schedule IV of the Feeds Regulations;
- you are importing a mixed feed (a combination of two or more single feed ingredient feeds) for livestock into Canada; or
- you are manufacturing a feed in Canada that does not meet the criteria for exemption from registration as described in the Feeds Act and Regulations;
- you are manufacturing or importing a specialty feed, mineral feed, converter feeds, fox feed; milk replacer and any other milk substitutes;
- You are manufacturing or importing complete feeds, supplements, and macro premixes, for all livestock, labelled with nutrient guarantee levels outside the ranges indicated in Table 4 (Schedule I) of the Feeds Regulations;
If you are not certain whether your feed is subject to registration after reading this guidance document and the regulations, you may request a review of your feed label. Please send an email with the subject line "Label Review" a copy of the proposed label, and description of the product to the AFD at: AFD_DAA@inspection.gc.ca.
Research Exemptions and Authorizations
If a proponent wishes to conduct research on a feed that does not meet the regulatory requirements (i.e., is not registered as prescribed, contains an approved ingredient that does not meet the purpose or description as listed in Schedules IV and V of the Feeds Regulations, or is an unapproved feed ingredient), they may need to submit an application for a Research Exemption or an Authorization of Novel Feed for Research Purposes to the AFD.
For more information, please consult Chapter 5 of the RG-1, Research with Livestock Feeds.
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